Study Questions Chapts. 8
- Phillipe Pinel is a champion of psychiatric reform. Describe his four
principles of moral treatment. When possible, include examples of how he
implemented these principles.
- Describe the development of the prefrontal lobotomy and
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). What rationale or observation led to each
of these techniques? How did the techniques change over time as new
information and technology became available?
- What impact does Freud continue to have on psychology today? Which of
his contributions are still a part of the discipline, and which have since
- What were the contributions of Lightner Witmer that led him to be
credited with establishing clinical psychology?
- Describe three early "cures" for mental illness. Be sure to include a
description of the rationale behind each cure and mention whether or not
they exist in any form today.
- Describe the recommendations of Shakow's 1941 and 1945 reports on
training in clinical psychology.
Last revised: 12 January 2009