Study Questions Chapts. 7 & 8

  1. One of the first topics of research by Gestalt psychologists was apparent motion. What is apparent motion? How is it created? What was its significance to the Gestaltists?

  2. Describe the differences between Köhler’s insight learning and Thorndike’s trial-and-error learning. What were the main differences in the experiments set up by these researchers?

  3. What is topological psychology? Describe its major elements and the sorts of questions examined in this field of research. How is it an example of Gestalt psychology?

  4. Phillipe Pinel is a champion of psychiatric reform. Describe his four principles of moral treatment. When possible, include examples of how he implemented these principles.

  5. Describe the development of the prefrontal lobotomy and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). What rationale or observation led to each of these techniques? How did the techniques change over time as new information and technology became available?

  6. What impact does Freud continue to have on psychology today? Which of his contributions are still a part of the discipline, and which have since faded?

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Last revised: 6 January 2005