Dr. Carol Tenopir


IS 537: The Information Industry
Last taught - Summer 2001
Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday 12:00-3:30
TC 303

Dr. Carol Tenopir
Summer office hours: Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday 10-11:30; 3:30-4:30 (or by appointment)

Catalog Description:
Issues and trends concerning information industry: products and services. Standards, enabling technologies, choice of distribution media, entrepreneurial opportunities. Legal, ethical, and quality concerns.

Course Description:
An overview of the information industry, with special emphasis on electronic publishing and entrepreneurial possibilities. Survey of the current scene and possible future directions of information products and services including economic and legal considerations, enabling technologies, product development, staffing, and marketing.

Course Goals/Objectives:
1. To understand the current state of the information industry in the US and world.
2. To investigate the range of information products and services.
3. To develop skills in recognizing entrepreneurial possibilities and potentially valuable products and services.
4. To recognize the value-added process and how it contributes to overall product development, staffing, and production.
5. To learn how the information industry interacts with libraries and librarians.
6. To understand the legal and ethical concerns facing the information industry.

A combination of lecture, practical projects, and class discussion. Students will design an information product or service as a major course assignment. Grades will be based on this assignment, plus exams, short assignments, and class participation.
This is not a beginning level course; some prior knowledge of information products or services is assumed. (For example, prior coursework in Information Sciences or work experience in an information environment.)

Course Assignments:
1. Final Exam – July 3. Essay and short answer exam covering the principles and major topics covered in assigned readings, class discussions, and class lectures. 20%

2. Semester project – June 28. Teams of 3-5 students will write a business plan for an information product. One grade is assigned to all team members.
Work on the projects will progress all term, culminating in a comprehensive written business plan. The business plan will include product design, market analysis, costs, staffing, marketing, and all other decisions necessary for creating a successful information product or service. This is not a technical design, but rather a planning and feasibility document. Further instructions will be passed out in class and examples are on reserve in Hodges Library. 30%

3. Oral presentation of the semester project business plan – June 27 or June 28. Each team will present their business plan to the class as if we are potential funders. Presentations should be no more than 15-20 minutes. The contribution of each team member must be evident. Different grades may be assigned to team members. 10%

4. Topical Discussion Guides (2). Each student will be responsible for preparing short discussion guides and help lead class discussion on two specific topics during the term. Suggested topics and instructions are attached at the end of this syllabus. These are meant to both generate discussion and allow each student to become an “instant expert” on two specific topics for which we will not be able to cover all aspects in class. Bring enough copies of each information sheet to distribute to each class member. 15% each for a total of 30%.

5. Class participation is required. Since this is a topic that is changing constantly, students are expected to track trends and contribute new information to class. Attendance at all sessions is expected. If you must miss a class please notify me as soon as possible, preferably before class. 10%

Technology Requirements:
Students will be expected to use online systems such as DIALOG, Dow Jones Interactive/Factiva, and LEXIS-NEXIS for assignments. General business application software (such as Excel, Word, and PowerPoint) will be needed for the business plan and presentation.

Academic Honesty:
Academic honesty requires that all work presented be your own unless it has been clearly specified that work is to be a team effort.
The University of Tennessee Graduate Catalog states:
Plagiarism is using the intellectual property or product of someone else without giving proper credit. The undocumented use of someone else's words or ideas in any medium of communication (unless such information is recognized as common knowledge) is a serious offense, subject to disciplinary action that may include failure in a course and/or dismissal from the University. Some examples of plagiarism are:
• Using without proper documentation (quotation marks and a citation) written or spoken words, phrases, or sentences from any source,
• Summarizing without proper documentation (usually a citation) ideas from another source (unless such information is recognized as common knowledge),
• Borrowing facts, statistics, graphs, pictorial representations, or phrases without acknowledging the source (unless such information is recognized as common knowledge),
• Submitting work, either in whole or in part, created by a professional service and used without attribution (e.g., paper, speech, bibliography, or photograph).
For more examples of plagiarism (and how to avoid it) see the following:

Evaluation and Due Dates:
• Final Exam, 20%, July 3
• Written Semester Project (Business Plan), 30%, due June 28
• Topical Discussion Guides, 30% (2 for 15% each), due throughout the semester
• Final Presentation, 10%, June 27 or June 28
• Class Participation, 10%
Assignments are due the day of the class session that is indicated. Late work may be penalized.

Rugge, Sue and Alfred Glossbrenner. The Information Broker's Handbook. 4th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.

Readings on Hodges Electronic Reserves
To enter Reserves go to:URL:http://www.lib.utk.edu and enter the UTK Library Catalog. At the bottom of the page is a button for Hodges Reserves.
Any book on how to write a business plan. In the past students have used: Abrams, Rhonda M. The Successful Business Plan: Secrets and Strategies. 3rd ed. Palo Alto, California: Running ‘R’ Media, 2000.

Course Schedule: [Subject to change]
Session 1 Introduction
May 31 Overview of the information industry
TR Enabling technologies/Delivery Media
Information products

Session 2 Information products
June 5 Electronic publishing
T Information Services

Session 3 Information Entrepreneurship
June 6 Introduction to Business Plans
WED Decide Groups

Session 4 Adding value to products and services
June 7 Idea generation

Session 5 Information Entrepreneurs
June 12 (Guest Speaker)

Session 6 Work on Business Plans
June 13

Session 7 Marketing and Funding
June 14 Pricing

Session 8 Employees and Staff
June 19

Session 9 Legal Issues
June 20

Session 10 Standards
June 21

Session 11 Quality and Ethical Issues
June 26

Session 12 Government’s Role
June 27 International Issues
WED Summary for exam
Oral presentations as needed

Session 13 Oral presentations
June 28 Written projects due

Session 14 FINAL EXAM
July 3

Reading List:

Session 1: Overview of the Information Industry, Enabling Technologies/Delivery Media, Information Products
Mandel, Michael J. and Robert D. Hof. “Rethinking the Internet: Patience, Please—the Net Obviously Won’t Change Everything. Its Power to Transform Will Play Out Unevenly and in Stages. Here’s how.” Business Week. New York: McGraw Hill (March 26, 2001): 116-124.
Williams, Martha E. "The State of Databases Today: 2001." Introduction to: Gale Directory of Databases. Detroit: Gale, 2001.
Porat, Marc. The Information Economy. V. 1: "Definition and Measurement." U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of Telecommunications, 1977. (C1.602 #77-12(1).)
Lancaster, F.W. Toward Paperless Information Systems. NY: Academic Press, 1978.
Machlup, Fritz. The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1962. (AZ 505 .M3).
Rubin, Michael and Rubin, Mary. The Knowledge Industry in the United States, 1960-1980. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986. (AZ 505 .R83 1986).

Session 2: Information Products, Electronic Publishing, Information Services
Tenopir, Carol and Don King. Chapter 15: “Transformations to Electronic Publishing.” Towards Electronic Journals: Realities for Scientists, Librarians, and Publishers. Washington, D.C.: Special Libraries Association (2000): 323-350.
Hickey, Thomas B. "Present and Future Capabilities of the Online Journal," 43 Library Trends (Spring 1995): 528-543.
Lancaster, F.W. "The Evolution of Electronic Publishing." Library Trends 43 (Spring 1995): 518-527.
Bailey, Charles W., Jr. "Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography." Updated regularly. URL: http://info.lib.uh.edu/sepb/sepb.html
Brand, Stewart. The Media Lab: Inventing the Future at MIT. NY: Viking/Penguin, 1987.
Negroponte, Nicholas. Being Digital. NY: Knopf, 1995.
Peek, Robin P. and Newby, Gregory B., eds. Scholarly Publishing: The Electronic Frontier. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996.
Tenopir, Carol and King, Donald W. Towards Electronic Journals: Realities for Scientists, Librarians, and Publishers. Washington, D.C.: Special Libraries Association, 2000.
“The Electronic Commerce Guide,” Mecklermedia, 1998.

Session 3: Information Entrepreneurship, Introduction to Business Plans, Decide Groups
Rugge textbook. Chapters 1-5.
Jones, Rebecca. “Business Plans: Roadmaps for Growth and Success.” Information Outlook. 4 (December 2000): 22-29.
Any books on writing a business plan such as:
Abrams, Rhonda M. The Successful Business Plan: Secrets and Strategies. 3rd ed. Palo Alto, California: Running ‘R’ Media, 2000.
McKeever, Mike. How to Write a Business Plan. Nolo Press, 1993.
Various brochures from the U.S. Small Business Administration

Session 4: Adding Value to Products and Services, Idea Generation
Taylor, Robert S. "Value-Added Processes in Document-Based Systems: Abstracting and Indexing Services." Information Services and Use 4 (June 1984): 127-146.
Tenopir, Carol. "A Day in the Life of a Database Producer." Database 15 (June 1992): 15-20.
Wurman, Richard Saul. Information Anxiety. NY: Doubleday, 1989.
Taylor, Robert S. Value-Added Processes in Information Systems. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1985.

Session 5: Information Entrepreneurs
Everett, John H. and Elizabeth P. Crowe, Information for Sale. 2nd edition. NY: Windcrest/McGraw-Hill, 1994.
Warner, Alice Sizer. Mind Your Own Business: A Guide for the Information Entrepreneur. NY: Neal-Schuman, 1987.
Burwell, Helen, ed. The Burwell Directory of Information Brokers. Houston: Burwell, published annually.

Session 6: Pricing, Marketing and Funding
Rugge textbook, Chapter 6, chapter 18-21, 22.
Borrus, Amy. “Someone Has to Pay the Freight: Dot-coms Are Under the Gun to Come Up With Viable Business Models. That Means Users Will Have to Get Used to Paying for Things They Got for Free.” Business Week. New York: McGraw-Hill (March 26, 2001): 134-136.
Khermouch, Gerry and Tom Lowry. “The Future of Advertising.” Business Week. New York: McGraw-Hill (March 26, 2001): 138.
Arnold, Stephen E. "Marketing Electronic Information: Theory, Practice, and Challenges, 1980-1990." Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 25 (1990): 87-144.
Elias, Art and Unruh, Betty. Economics of Database Production. Philadelphia, PA: NFAIS, 1991.
Unruh, Betty, ed. The Information Marketing Handbook. Philadelphia: NFAIS, 1989.
Saunier, Fredric. Marketing Strategies for the Online Industry. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1988.
DiRenzo, Thomas G. Developing New Markets for Information Products. 1993 NFAIS Report Series, number 1. Philadelphia: NFAIS, 1993.

Session 7: Employees and Staff
Barbara Quint. “Recruiting a Corporate Dream Team.” 17 Information Today. Medford: Information Today, Inc. (September 2000): 12, 13, 70.
Meglio, Delores. "Telecommuting Brings Bountiful Benefits to Information Industry Employers and Employees." Information Services & Use 8 (1988): 177-185.
Cunningham, Ann Marie and Wicks, Wendy, eds. Flexible Workstyles in the Information Industry. 1993 NFAIS Report Series, Number 2. Philadelphia: NFAIS, 1993.
Debons, A. The Information Professional: Survey of an Emerging Field. NY: Dekker, 1981.
Deken, Joseph. The Electronic Cottage. NY: Morrow, 1981.
SLA What is an Information Professional (includes Competencies for Special Librarians)

Session 8: Legal Issues
Halvorson, T.R. "Selected Aspects of Legal Liabilities of Independent Information Professionals." In: Electronic Information Delivery, ed. Reva Basch, 171-187. Brookfield, VT: Gower, 1995.
University of Texas. “Crash Course in Copyright.”
Hardy, Trotter. "Sketching the Future of Copyright in a Networked World." August 1998. URL: http://lcweb.loc.gov/copyright/cpypub/thardy.pdf
see also www.loc.gov/copyright
Branscomb, Anne. Who Owns Information? From Privacy to Public Access. Basic Books, 1994.

Session 9: Standards
Spring, Michael B. "Information Technology Standards." Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 26 (1991): 79-111.
National Information Standards Organization. URL:http://www.niso.org
Crawford, Walt. Technical Standards: An Introduction for Librarians. 2nd ed. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1991.
Various NISO (Z39) standards from ANSI and ISO standards. See "NSSN: A National Resource for Global Standards--ANSI," 1998. URL: http://www.nssn.org (this is a bibliographic database of standards.); URL:http://www.ansi.org; URL:http://www.iso.ch.

Session 10: Quality and Ethical Issues
Rugge textbook, Appendix C.
Tenopir, Carol. "Priorities of Quality." In: Electronic Information Delivery: Ensuring Quality and Value, edited by Reva Basch. London: Gower, 1995.
Smith, Martha Montague. "Information Ethics." Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 32 (1997): 339-366.
Mintz, Anne. "Quality Control and the Zen of Database Production." Online 14 (November 1990): 15-23. Winner of the 1991 UMI/Learned Information International writing prize.
Mintz, Anne, ed. Information Ethics: Concerns for Librarianship and the Information Industry. McFarland, 1990.
Basch, Reva, ed. Electronic Information Delivery: Ensuring Quality and Value. London: Gower, 1995.

Session 11: Government’s Role, International Issues
Braman, Sandra. "Policy for the Net and the Internet," Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 30 (1995): 5-75.
Hlava, Marjorie M.K. "The Internationalization of the Information Industry." Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science 19 (February/March 1993): 12-15.
Hernon, Peter and McClure, Charles R. "Electronic U.S. Government Information Policy: Issues and Directions," Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 28 (1993): 45-110.
McClure, Charles R. et al. National Research and Education Network (NREN): Research and Policy Perspectives. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1991.
The World Intellectual Property Organization: http://www3.itu.ch/MISSIONS/US/bb/wipo.html
Schipper, Wendy and Cunningham, Marie. National and International Information Policies. Philadelphia: NFAIS, 1991. Includes policies for Canada, Europe, Asia-Pacific region, and developing countries.

Session 12: Oral Presentations, Written Projects Due

Session 13: FINAL EXAM

Topical Discussion Guidelines:
The class will include discussion of many complex topics that change daily and that affect us all. Each student will serve as a co-leader of two class discussions. For each topic you lead, prepare a 1-2 page (maximum) discussion guide that summarizes the issue and provides 3-5 citations of web sites or easily accessible articles you recommend on the topic. Each discussion and discussion guide is worth 15% of your grade. Bring enough copies for everyone in class.

Topics and Dates Due:
Help to lead a discussion and write a 1-2 page discussion guide on your choice of two of the following (or check with Dr. Tenopir to add a different topic of interest).
• Session 2, June 5
a. E-Books: What are they and how will they change the book publishing industry?
b. Why are librarians so angry with publishers of scholarly journals? What do they mean by “serials crisis”? What can publishers do?
• Session 3, June 6
a. Dot-coms and Entrepreneurs: Is the time for becoming a dot-com entrepreneur over? Why or why not?
b. What does it take to be an information entrepreneur?
• Session 4, June 7
a. Ideas for information businesses: what are some good ideas for information industry businesses? What makes a good idea? What are some bad ideas?
b. Is human indexing and abstracting feasible anymore? How can the secondary publishing industry survive?
c. Is information really “valuable” when there is an information glut? If so, what makes information valuable? What is “value”?
• Session 7, June 14
a. Venture capitalists – What are they and what do they mean for the information industry?
b. Advertising – Is advertising a feasible way to make profits in information products? Why do some say revenues are below expectations?
c. Do libraries need to market their services? What can they learn from the marketing practices of companies?
• Session 8, June 19
a. Getting a job in the industry: What types of entry-level jobs are there and how do you go about getting one?
b. Is a master’s degree in Library and Information Sciences necessary or desirable in the information industry?
• Session 9, June 20
a. How can copyright laws be enforced in an Internet age? Are librarians our enemies?
b. Napster – What does it mean for information companies?
• Session 10, June 21
a. Pick two NISO standards to discuss: Why should information companies follow (or not follow) these and other standards?
• Session 11, June 26
Quality and Ethical issues:
a. Is it better to be current or accurate? Is it possible to be both?
b. Find some examples of legal but ethically questionable behavior by information companies; by customers; are they wrong?
c. Does an information company have a responsibility to archive their content and provide access to the archives? What about the costs associated with archiving? If they don’t who should?
• Session 12, June 27
a. What impact will UCITA (Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act) or other federal statutes or regulations have on information companies?
b. International issues: What impact will mergers and acquisitions in large international companies have on the industry as a whole? What happens when Thomson, Reed-Elsevier, and Walters-Kluwer own most of the information

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Dr. Carol Tenopir     School of Information Sciences     College of Communication and Information     University of Tennessee
1345 Circle Park Drive, Room 451      University of Tennessee     Knoxville, TN 37996-0341     (865) 974-7911     ctenopir@utk.edu