Table 6-1

Process Elements of Andragogy

Process Elements


Pedagogical Approach

Andragogical Approach

1. Preparing Learners


Provide Information

Prepare for participation

Help develop realistic expectations

Begin thinking about content

2. Climate




Relaxed, trusting

Mutually respectful

Informal, warm

Collaborative, supportive

Openness and authenticity


3. Planning

By teacher

Mechanism for mutual planning by learners and facilitator

4. Diagnosis of Needs

By teacher

By mutual assessment

5. Setting of Objectives

By teacher

By mutual negotiation

6. Designing Learning Plans

Logic of subject matter

Content units

Sequenced by readiness

Problem units

7. Learning Activities

Transmittal techniques

Experiential techniques (inquiry)

8. Evaluation

By teacher

Mutual re-diagnosis of needs

Mutual measurement of program

Developed from Knowles (1992) and Knowles (1995)

                                             Source: (Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 2005)