Table 4.2

Major Contributions of Clinical Psychologists

Sigmund Freud

Identified influence of subconscious mind on behavior


Carl Jung

Introduced notion that human consciousness possesses four functions: sensation, thought, emotion, and intuition


Erik Erikson

Provided “Eight Ages of Man” : Oral-sensory, muscular-anal, locomotion-genital, latency, puberty and adolescence, young adulthood, adulthood, and final stage


Abraham Maslow

Emphasized the role of safety


Carl Rogers

Conceptualized a student-centered approach to education based on five “basic hypotheses”:

1.    We cannot teach another person directly, we can only facilitate his learning

2.    A person learns significantly only those things which he perceives as being involved in the maintenance of, or enhancement of, the structure of self

3.    Experience which, if assimilated would involve a change in the organization of self, tends to be resisted through denial or distortion of symbolization

4.    The structure and organization of self appear to become more rigid under threat and to relax its boundaries when completely free from threat. Experience which is perceived as inconsistent with the self can only be assimilated if the current organization of self is relaxed and expanded to include it.

5.    The educational situation which most effectively promotes significant learning is one in which (a) threat to the self of the learner is reduced to a minimum, and (b) differentiated perception of the field is facilitated.

Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F., & Swanson, R. A. (2005). The adult learner : the definitive

classic in adult education and human resource development (6th ed.). Amsterdam ; Boston: Elsevier.