Current Thinking of Pedagogical & Andragogical Models






Need to Know

Learners only need to know they must learn what the teacher teaches if they want to pass & get promoted; they do not need to know how what they learn will apply to their lives.

Adults need to know why they need to know something before undertaking it / investing their time in undertaking the task.



LearnerŐs Self Concept

TeacherŐs concept of learner is that of a dependent personality; LearnerŐs self-concept becomes that of a dependent personality.

Adults being responsible for their own lives. Need to be seen and treated by others as being capable of self-direction.





Role of Experience


LearnerŐs experience is of little worth as resource for learning. TeacherŐs experience is what counts, as well as textbook, writerŐs experience, etc. So, transmittal techniques are the backbone of pedagogical method.

Adults come into an educational activity with both a greater volume and a different quality of experience from youth. This has several consequences for adult education. A) A wider range of individual differences in terms of background, learning style, motivation, needs, interests, and goals ˆ this is why emphasis in adult education is placed on individualization of learning and teaching strategies.




Readiness to Learn


Learners have a subject-centered orientation to learning. They see it as acquiring subject matter content.

Adults become ready to learn those things they need to know, or be able to do, in order to cope effectively with their real-life situations. Importance of timing learning experiences to coincide with those developmental tasks.

Motivation to Learn

Learners are motivated by extrinsic motivators – grades, parentŐs approval.

AdultsŐ motivators are more intrinsic. (Desire for self-esteem, job satisfaction).