Gerorich Bibliography by Course

Developed by The University of Tennesse College of Social Work for the Geriatric Enrichment in Social Work Education Program Funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation.

This document is several pages in length. Click the links below to move quickly to a course and then hit the back key on your web browser to return to the top.

SW 200 Introduction to Social Work

SW 250 Social Welfare

SW 310 Social Work Research

SW 312 Social Work Practice I

SW 313 Social Work Practice II

SW 314 Human Behavior and the Social Environment

SW 316 Culturally Responsive Social Work Practice

SW 412 Social Work Practice III

SW 416 Social Welfare Policies and Issues

SW 501 Foundations of Social Work Practice I

SW 503 Foundations of Social Work Practice II

SW 504 Foundations of Social Work Practice III

SW 506 Social Work Research Methods

SW 514 Human Behavior in the Social Environment I

SW 515 Human Behavior in the Social Environment I

SW 516 Social Welfare Policy and Services

SW 518 Social Work and Oppression

SW 200 Introduction to Social Work

ACTIVITY - What is your age IQ?

Mixson, P.M. (1995). An adult protective services perspective. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect,7 (2-3): 69-79.

            This article contains a brief summary of the development of Adult Protective Services (APS) programs in the United States. It considers the development of these programs in relation to federal law and policy, providing an overview of the variety of issues and topics the programs were established to cover. A description of ethical values and protocols is presented in this particular article along with systematic constraints in public agency practice. Using three case studies, these values and protocols are applied in an attempt to illustrate the need for multidisciplinary cooperation. This multidisciplinary cooperation and coordination is deemed necessary to gain information and resources relevant to resolve the presenting problems in programs.

Thompson, M., Caelin, R., Wainright, W., Mattar, L., and Scanlan, M. (2001). Activities of counsellors in a hospice/palliative care environment. Journal of Palliative Care, 17 (4): 229-235.

            This study used a qualitative design to examine activities related to the provision of psychosocial  care by counselors in the hospice/palliative care setting. Thirteen counselors chosen through a convenience sample provided information regarding the activities they typically performed in their work with patients and families. Thematic analysis of the activities indicated by the counselors related to patient and family care was performed and then validated by presenting these activities back to the counselors in a group setting. Basically, seven themes resulted from the analysis: 1)companioning; 2)psychosocial assessment, planning, and evaluation; 3)counseling interventions; 4)facilitation and advocacy ; 5)patient and family education; 6)consultation and reporting; 7)team support. These thematic findings were consistent with previous findings of other studies with the exception of two additional findings. It was apparent that team support was viewed as an activity that directly affected client care, and a strong emphasis was placed on companionship for the dying and their families. Included is a discussion of these two findings and suggestion for further research.

SW 250 Social Welfare

Edwards, N.I., & Meara, J. (1999). Care of disabled older people in the community. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology, 9: 363-369.

                Reviews issues and interventions to help identify at risk older people in the community who may benefit from an integrated assessment and intervention contributing to maintaining quality of life, autonomy, and independence. The concept of a comprehensive geriatric assessment is discussed and provision of comprehensive community-based case management and care is addressed. Respite care as an aspect of continuing care can be provided by health care professionals, and appropriate aids and appliances can contribute to maintaining independent functioning, postpone the need for institutionalization, and reduce input by professional and informal caregivers. With the rise in the very elderly needing support, strategies for their care need to be continuously monitored and adapted accordingly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

SW 310 Social Work Research

Ames, N. & Diepstra, S.  (2006).  Using intergenerational oral history service-learning projects to teach human behavior concepts:  A qualitative analysis.  Educational Gerontology, 32, 9, 721-735.

                An intergenerational oral history project paired 63 students enrolled in human behavior in the social environment (HBSC) courses in a bachelor of social work (BSW) programs with older adults. The goal of the project was to provide contextual application of HBSE theories and concepts by engaging students in semester-long intentional interaction with older adults. Qualitative evaluation of the oral history project found that students reported multiple benefits from participation. The authors attribute the project's positive outcomes to its service-learning nature as well as the unique and applied way in which it allowed students to learn mandated course content.

Ball, K., Wadley, V., & Roenker, D.  (2003).  Obstacles to implementing research outcomes in community settings.  The Gerontologist, 43, 1, 19-28.

                In contrast to controlled laboratory- or clinic based research that can fail to capture the real-world behaviors of older adults, field research offers the best opportunity for ecological validity. However, the tradeoff inherent in field studies is the potential sacrifice of scientific rigor. Applied research presents a unique set of challenges that vary with context. This article discusses these challenges along with possible solutions. Examples are drawn from an ongoing, longitudinal Roybal Center study of driving competence that is being conducted in Department of Motor Vehicles field sites. The challenges faced at each stage of the project are discussed. Methodological issues include identifying field collaborators, approaching administrators with the research proposal, producing a battery that is manageable and acceptable while maintaining scientific merit, training indigenous personnel to administer this battery, introducing the research and consenting potential participants, and managing large data sets offsite. Additional issues include quality control, the importance of distinguishing between individuals who consent and those who decline participation, and the collection of follow-up data via telephone. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Burns, A., Lawlor, B., and Craig, S. (2002). Rating scales in old age psychiatry. British Journal of Psychiatry, 180: 161-167.

                There is a variety of scales currently available for use in assessing all aspects of mental and physical health in older people which may be of relevance to the work of old age psychiatrists. This article is a summarization of some of the scales that may prove to be most useful in clinical and research practice and a source of guidelines for finding further information.The article concludes that many scales are available for practitioners, and the specific scale that would be most useful depends on the question that is being asked. One perfect, ideal scale that serves every purpose and situation does not exist.

Czaja, S. & Sharit, J.  (2003).  Practically relevant research: Capturing real world tasks, environments, and outcomesThe Gerontologist, 43, 1, 9-18.

                Development of strategies to optimize the functional performance of older adults requires understanding the behavior of older people doing tasks in real-world settings and capturing these interactions in research protocols. This is a major challenge as there is tension between capturing the contextual variables and constraints that operate in the real world and the scale of research that can be realistically conducted within controlled experimental settings. This article presents a research approach that can be used to help ensure the ecological validity of research protocols. The intent is to demonstrate how an ecologically valid approach affords greater insight into the performance of older adults in real world settings. The study uses techniques such as task analysis and simulation and examples from two research projects examining aging and the performance of real-world computer-based work tasks are used to demonstrate the application of this approach. Results show an ecologically valid research approach yields information about human performance that can be translated into solutions for real-world problems. Implications are that ecologically valid research protocols can give answers to real-world problems and advance theory regarding aging and functional performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Dellman-Jenkins, M., Blankemyer, M., and Pinkard, O. (2000). Young adult children and Grandchildren in primary caregiver roles to older relatives and their service needs. Family Relations 49 (2): 177-186.

                Since the nuclear family is an establishment of the past, an expansion of the family into four generations has resulted. A new population of caregivers to elderly members of the society has emerged: young adults. This article highlights a study using both quantitative and qualitative findings on children and grandchildren, aged 40 years and younger, serving as the major source of support to an older relative(s). Intervention strategies for professionals in direct contact with this age group are outlined as well.

Feldman, P. H., Nadash, P., Gursen, M.  (2001).  Improving communication between researchers and policy makers in long-term care: Or, researchers are from Mars; policy makers are from Venus.  The Gerontologist, 41, 3, 312-321.

                The writers report that in their work with the Home Care Research Initiative, they experimented with a number of dissemination tactics and came to realize the difficulties in tailoring information for different policy audiences. They relate their exploration of the problem of dissemination through discussions they held with state long-term care (LTC) policymakers about their research information needs and through their examination of the activities of groups that communicate LTC data. They state that they supplemented this "environmental scan" with a convention of LTC researchers and policy makers to explore their findings. They indicate that their analysis has revealed a mismatch between the activities researchers and brokers engage in and the perceived needs of LTC policymakers. They present their recommendations for synthesizing, translating, and disseminating complex and important policy-relevant research findings and for bridging the gap between researchers and policymakers.

Gaugler, J. E., Kane, R. L., Kane, R. A., Clay, T., & Newcomer, R.  (2002).  Family care for older adults with disabilities: Toward more targeted and interpretable research.  International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 54, 3, 205-231.

                Family care of the elderly is key to the long-term care system, and its importance has led to an abundance of research over the past two decades. Several methodological and substantive issues, if addressed, could create even more targeted and interpretable research. The present review critically examines methodological topics (i.e., definitions of family caregiving, measurement of caregiving inputs) and conceptual issues (i.e., family involvement in long-term residential settings, and the care receiver's perspective on care) that have received insufficient attention in the caregiving literature. Throughout this review recommendations are offered to improve these areas and advance the state of the art. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Glasser, M., Prohaska, T., & Gravdal, J.  (2001).  Elderly patients and their accompanying caregivers on medical visits.  Research on Aging, 23, 3, 326-348.

                Examined how elderly patients and caregivers view the roles and assistance of caregivers in the health care decisions and medical encounters of older patients. 185 patients (aged 60 yrs and older) and their accompanying caregivers (e.g., family, friends, neighbors) at 4 outpatient clinics were surveyed on patient-caregiver interactions about health-related issues; frequency and importance of caregiver accompaniment on medical visits; reasons for caregiver accompaniment; health characteristics of patients and caregivers, including, depression symptoms; and demographic information. Compared with patients not accompanied, patients accompanied on medical visits were more likely to be women, have lower incomes, and experience worse physical and mental health status. Findings provide evidence of the "advocate" and supportive roles played by informal caregivers of elderly patients. The high level of depression symptoms is an issue for physicians. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Klimidis, S., Minas, I.H., and Yamamoto, K. (2001). Impact of Illness Scale: Reliability, validity, and cross-cultural utility. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 42 (5): 416-423.

                This article is an analysis of the development of a short (nine-term) Impact of Illness Scale (IIS). The purpose of the scale is to measure the degree to which an illness is perceived to restrict psychosocial functioning. The scale is shown to have “high internal consistency” across a selected variety of samples. Determination of validity is found by correlating this specific measure with other scales whose purpose is to measure general functioning in samples affected by illness. According to the correlation of this scale with the others considered, there is very slight variations between the IIS and the other measures. This is concluded, taking into consideration a number of different groups from different language and cultural backgrounds. The conclusion of the article is that the IIS is a valid measure of psychosocial impact of illness that is appropriate for use in a wide range of settings.

Kuhn, D. R., & Mendes de Leon, C. F.  (2001).  Evaluating an educational intervention with relatives of persons in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease.  Research on Social Work Practice, 11, 5, 531-548.

                The objective of this article was to describe the results of an educational intervention for family caregivers of persons in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. A total of 58 family caregivers (aged 24-90 yrs) participated in this intervention, which consisted of five weekly educational sessions about the disease and various aspects of caregiving. Measures of knowledge about Alzheimer's disease, reactions to patients' impairments, and levels of depression at pretest, posttest, and follow-up at 9 months posttest were analyzed. The results showed that modest benefits were derived by participants at the three points in time, with knowledge about the disease improving significantly, reactions to patients' impairments improving slightly, and level of depression increasing slightly. This preliminary study reveals that the educational intervention has merit for family caregivers coping with the early stages of Alzheimer's disease, but new or different outcome measures could possibly better assess its impact. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Marson, D.  (2002).  Competency assessment and research in an aging societyGenerations, 26, 1, 99-106. 

                Part of a special issue on mental health and mental illness in later life. Competency has emerged as a distinct field of legal, clinical, and behavioral research since the late 1970s. As society ages, clinical assessments of decisional abilities and higher-order functional capacities in the elderly have become increasingly important. Moreover, competency assessment practices and research regarding the elderly will continue to gain prominence in the first decade of the 21st century. A number of perceptions and predictions about future practice trends and directions for research are discussed.

Morano, C., & Bravo, M.  (2002).  A psychoeducation model for Hispanic Alzheimer’s disease caregivers.  The Gerontologist, 42, 1, 122-126.

                A purposive sample of Hispanic caregivers participated in a 5-day, 20-hr psychoeducational program to increase the caregivers' understanding and acceptance of Alzheimer's disease (AD), repertoire of coping skills, knowledge of resources, and expression of concerns and emotions of caregiving. Pre- and posttests were administered to determine if participation in the program improved caregivers' knowledge of the progression and management of AD, as well as knowledge of appropriate community-based services. Caregivers demonstrated a significant improvement on the Caregiver Knowledge Survey, an increased awareness of community-based services, increased willingness to attend support groups, and overall satisfaction with the program. Culturally sensitive intervention research with minority AD caregivers provides the opportunity to increase understanding and improve coping skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Motta, M., Bennati, E., Ferlito, L., Malaguarnera, M., & Motta, L.  (2005)Successful aging in centenarians: Myths and reality.  Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 40, 3, 241-251.

            The term "successful aging" appeared in the first issue of "The Gerontologist" in 1961. During the successive years, this expression has changed its meaning. Nowadays, successful aging means "absence of diseases and disabilities, maintenance of high levels of physical and cognitive abilities, preservation of the social and productive activities". It has become a common opinion that the centenarians may represent the prototypes of the successful aging. This motivated our work to study the clinical, psychical, and functional aspects in a centenarian group, verifying the real autonomy, instrumental capacities, and working abilities. Our study pool consisted of 602 centenarians, who were also subjects of then epidemiological studies of the Italian Multicenter Studies on Centenarians (IMUSCE). All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnestic evaluation, cognitive-functional tests by means of the mini mental state examination (MMSE), the independence index in activities of daily living (ADL) the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scale. The centenarians were classified in three groups, according to the criteria elaborated previously by us, based on their psychophysical status and autonomy, as follows. Group A: centenarians in good health status; Group B: centenarians in an intermediate health status. Group C: centenarians in bad health status. Group A represented 20.0% of the total pool, Group B amounted to 33.4%, and the Group C was 46.6%. The centenarians of Group A presented normal ADL values, and 47.9% of them were autosufficient in all functions; 5.7% of them were independent in all IADL items. These data confirm that the centenarians of Group A are free of invalidating chronic diseases, are autonomous, maintain good physical and cognitive capacities, however, have not maintained any social or productive activities. Therefore, they cannot be considered as prototypes of successful aging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Mui, A.C., Burnette, D., and Chen, L.M. (2001). Cross-Cultural assessment of geriatric  depression: A review of the CES-D and the GDS. Journal of Mental Health and Aging, 7(1): 137-159.

            This article reviews previously published studies conducted on the usability and effectiveness of two of the most broadly facilitated instruments for depressive symptomatology among older populations: the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The findings concluded that the CES-D is a useful measure of depression in diverse groups of older adults. More extensive research should be conducted to determine the validity of the scale when the measure involves different cultural groups. There was an evident inconsistency concerning the particular composition and rank of various factors:  the well-being factor proved to be problematic in non-Western cultures, two instead of four factors were a better fit for data on Hispanic elders, for African Americans the interpersonal factor was most salient, and somatic factors along with depressed affect were relevant for American Indians. Review of the GDS concluded that would need to undergo alterations before it would be a valid measure in other cultures.

Orel, N., Wright, J., Wagner, J.  (2004).  Scarcity of HIV/AIDS risk-reduction materials targeting the needs of older adults among state departments of public health.  The Gerontologist, 44, 5, 693-696.

                This study investigated the availability of printed human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education/prevention materials from state departments of public health within the US, which specifically targeted the older adult population. Information on HIV/AIDS from public health departments in each of the 50 states was solicited, obtained, & analyzed for applicability to an older adult population. Although all 50 states responded to our request for publications, only 15 states (30%) provided publications that were specifically intended for an older adult audience. The title, date of publication, & publisher of publications that were considered "specific to older adults" are provided. These findings suggest that there is a general lack of HIV/AIDS prevention literature specifically tailored for older adults available through state departments of public health.

Peak, T., & Sinclair, S.  (2002).  Using customer satisfaction surveys to improve quality of care in nursing homesHealth and Social Work, 27, 75-79.

                Discusses issues in using customer satisfaction surveys to measure the quality of care in nursing homes, using the case study of Sunshine Terrace, a nonprofit, skilled, subacute extended care facility. The use of annual satisfaction measures with 3 stakeholder groups--nursing home residents, family members, and staff--is discussed. In the case example, the most commonly raised concerns by residents and family members were the quality of food, insufficient staffing, and the complaint process itself. These issues were addressed with increased emphasis on training and education about the delivery of resident-centered care and procedures for registering a complaint. Staff surveys expressed concerns about feeling excluded from workplace decision making and lack of respect from supervisors and coworkers. The plans of action to address these concerns re-emphasized the importance of communication skills and positive feedback and began to include staff in care conferences and on Quality Improvement Action Teams. The role of nursing home social workers in the survey process and the implementation of plans of action based on survey results are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Richter, J., Eisemann, M.R., and Zgonnikova, E. (2002). Doctors’ attitudes and end-of-life decisions in the elderly: A comparative study between Sweden, Germany, and Russia. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 34: 107-115.

            The purpose of this study was to determine on a cross-cultural basis to what extent the following attitudes influence the treatment decisions of doctors in face of a critically ill incompetent elderly patient: legal and ethical concerns, hospital costs, level of dementia, patient’s age, patient’s wishes, family wishes, doctor’s religion. Convenience samples of doctors in Sweden, Germany, and Russia were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. The results of the questionnaire reflected that the importance of various attitudes attributed to the treatment decision varied depending on the country in which it was administered. The most obvious differences were the importance of hospital costs, level of dementia, and patient and family wishes. The results appear to reflect a need for uniform standards regarding the training of doctors in ethical issues, and depict the difference in societal values for the aforementioned countries.       

Waldrop, D. P. & Weber, J. A.  (2001).  From grandparent to caregiver: The stress and satisfaction of raising grandchildren.  Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 82, 5, 461-472.

                The circumstances faced by grandparents who become caregivers for their grandchildren are complicated and stressful. In-depth interviews were conducted with 54 grandparent caregivers (37 grandmothers and 17 grandfathers). Analysis of qualitative data involved the use of QSR NUD*IST software for organizing and coding interview transcripts. Subsets of financial, family, and legal problems specific to grandparent caregiving were identified. Grandparent caregivers acquire problem-specific coping strategies, which include taking action, talking about feelings, religious faith, focus on the grandchild, outreach to others, and some "less desirable" means. Caregiver satisfaction was related to the joys of children, the tasks of child-rearing participating in grandchildren's activities, a new focus for life, and watching a child's accomplishments. This study identified the need for additional research about interventions for the stress and coping responses of grandparent caregivers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Wiglesworth, A., Mosqueda, L., Burnight, K., Younglove, T., & Jeske, D.  (2006).  Findings from an Elder Abuse Forensic Center.  The Gerontologist, 46, 2, 277-283.

                The first Elder Abuse Forensic Center (EAFC) in the United States was instituted in 2003. People from a variety of disciplines, including Adult Protective Services social workers, law enforcement, the district attorney's office, a medical response team, public guardian deputies, ombudsmen, mental health services, a victim advocate, and a domestic violence expert work cooperatively on cases of elder and dependent-adult mistreatment. Researchers conducted an assessment of the EAFC's impact on the efficiency and effectiveness of the collaboration. Design and Methods: Mixed quantitative and qualitative methods included statistical analysis of data from outcome surveys of EAFC collaborators and illustrative case studies developed from case files and structured interviews. Results: Mean survey scores evaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of the collaboration were significantly better than neutral responses. Case studies show efficient and effective case management through cooperation of the collaborating agencies. Survey results clearly support perceptions exemplified in case studies. Implications: An EAFC enhances the efficiency and effectiveness of those who address elder abuse in one community, which in turn leads to improved outcomes. Continued analysis to identify strengths, weaknesses, and cost effectiveness of the EAFC model is ongoing.

SW 312 Social Work Practice I

ACTIVITY- Communication with Older Adults

ACTIVITY- Review Activities of Daily Living Scales

                   Physical Self Maintenance Scale (PSMS)

                   Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADL)

Bergeron, L. & Gray, B.  (2003).  Ethical dilemmas of reporting suspected elder abuseSocial Work, 48, 1, 96-106.

                Elder abuse reporting laws exist in every state to protect elderly people being abused physically or emotionally, suffering from neglect, or experiencing financial exploitation. Support groups for caregivers of elderly individuals may help prevent elder abuse by reducing caregiver stress and linking caregivers to community services. Using case illustrations, the authors raise the dilemmas that group facilitators face when deciding whether to report a group member suspected of abusing his or her elder care recipient. The ethical concerns of reporting or withholding a report are discussed, and recommendations to assist facilitators in this complex decision process are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Cox, C. (2000). Empowerment practice: Implications for interventions with African American and Latina custodial grandmothers. Journal of Mental Health and Aging, 6 (4): 385-395.

                A program in empowerment training for custodial grandparents with a complete curriculum in English and Spanish was developed and offered to groups of African American and Latina grandmothers raising grandchildren.  The program includes 12 classes covering subjects of particular interest to grandparents and relevant to their needs.  At the completion of the training, the grandparents are expected to share their learning with other community presentations.  This acts as a further means of reinforcing empowerment and their new roles.

Galambos, C.M. (1997). Resolving ethical conflicts in providing case management services to the elderly. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 27(4): 57-67.

                Case management is an effective social work practice model widely used with elderly clients. However, its structure and orientation to service delivery can lead to ethical conflicts for the practitioner. This article discusses four types inherent in the case management model: autonomy vs. paternalism, fiduciary relationship to the agency vs. fiduciary relationship to the client, protection of client confidentiality vs. sharing client information, and distributive justice vs. injustice. Practice techniques are offered as a means to reduce ethical conflicts experienced by the practitioner. (Journal abstract.)

Keigher, S.  (2001).  Clinical ethics, living, and dying: New challenges for changing times.  Health and Social Work, 26, 3, 131-135.

                Many people are uncomfortable with death, and for many the dying process is a peculiarly repressed phenomenon. The very nature of the dying process in the United States changed dramatically during the past century (Bern-Klug, Gessert, & Forbes, 2001), moving from the home to hospitals and nursing homes where over 80 percent of deaths occur today, increasingly hidden from public view and disconnected from public life. This issue illuminates some of these challenges, taking up emerging ethical conundrums, practices, and policies. Some of these articles use new empirical data to tease out the wide array of dilemmas practitioners seek to resolve. Others explicate urgent issues and venues for redress through practice, advocacy, agency procedures, and government policy. (Editorial, edited.)

Kennedy, G. & Tanenbaum, S.  (2000).  Psychotherapy with older adults.  American Journal of Psychotherapy, 54, 3, 386-407.

                The scope of need and possible benefit of psychosocial interventions in late life far exceeds the scientific evidence of efficacy. Most studies have been conducted in academic settings with self-selected, relatively independent older adults for whom measures of benefit were narrowly defined. In reviewing the existing literature concerning individual, group, and couples therapies in the geriatric population, the authors find that with appropriate adaptations for medical comorbidity, cognitive and sensory impairment, caregiver inclusion, and realistic modification of treatment goals, psychotherapeutic endeavors with the senior patient can prove to be highly successful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Kivnick, H, & Murry, S.  (2001).  Life strengths interview guideJournal of Gerontological Social Work, 34, 7-32.

                While standardization of assessment tools in gerontological social work permits comparability across individuals, and within individuals across time paradoxically, this same standardization eliminates from consideration those individual differences that may have most to do with client outcomes. This manuscript presents a theoretical and practical basis for assessing strengths in frail elder clients, and for using these strengths in designing and implementing individual case plans. Further, an assessment tool is introduced in the form of a set of specific questions that may be used by practitioners in meaningfully gathering information about personal strengths and assets from frail elder clients.

Koenig, T., Rinfrette, E., & Lutz, W.  (2006).  Female caregivers’ reflections on ethical decision-making: the intersection of domestic violence and elder careClinical Social Work Journal, 34, 3, 361-372.

            As our population ages, increasing numbers of social workers and other therapists will provide counseling to women who are caregivers of frail elders. These female caregivers often face complex ethical dilemmas in caring for a frail elder. Furthermore, these dilemmas are compounded by domestic violence in the caregiver/frail elder relationship initiated before the onset of caregiving. Illustrated with case examples, this article presents an ethical decision-making model based on an empowerment framework for helping practitioners work with caregivers who face difficult dilemmas impacted by domestic violence. Implications for strengthening clinical practice with these caregivers are discussed.

Koenig, T. & Spano, R.  (2006).  Professional hope in working with older adults.  Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 33, 2, 25-44.

            Writings about hope within gerontological literature assume social workers already possess hope that they can use in their practice. The purpose of this article was to challenge this assumption and to examine ways in which social workers can sustain hope in personal life, in their agencies, and in the reform of larger social structures that impact older adults. The authors examine culture change in nursing homes as an emerging approach that can be more fully developed by applying the strengths perspective to interpersonal work with elders, agency change, and broader structural change.

Kryk, V. (1995). Three case studies of elder mistreatment: Identifying ethical issues. Journal Of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 7 (2-3): 19-25.

                This article presents three different case studies involving ethical issues surrounding elder mistreatment. These case studies were developed from a variety of actual situations and events in an attempt to illustrate the issue effectively. The ethical issues presented vary in complexity so the reader can fully understand the potential of professionals to not only encounter elder mistreatment, but to know how to react appropriately. Elements of self neglect, abuse by others, and unintentional mistreatment are also contained in the cases depicted.

Linsk, N.  (2000).  HIV among older adults: Age-specific issues in prevention and treatment.  AIDS Reader, 10, 7, 430-444.

                A substantial and increasing number of people have acquired HIV infections in their later years, as a result of male-to-male sexual contact or blood transfusion. However, heterosexual transmission also occurs, and substance abuse is often a factor. Health and service practitioners need to develop sensitivity to the needs of HIV-infected elderly people and their families. Prevention efforts and education should be incorporated as part of their initial assessment. Issues of treatment regimens, adherence, confidentiality, social support, and nondiscrimination are critical concerns when serving this population.

Milewski-Hertlein, K.  (2001).  The use of a socially constructed genogram in clinical practice.  American Journal of Family Therapy, 29, 1, 23-38.

                Discusses the rationale for a socially constructed genogram, allowing for multiple definitions of family to be represented. It describes the role of the problem system and the utility of this genogram in these situations. It describes the set-up of a socially constructed genogram and provides clinical examples. The socially constructed genogram meets the task of the standard genogram in the following areas: It can be useful for engaging the problem-system in therapy. It can arrange for key experiences in the client's relationships and behaviors. It provides the clinician a way of understanding what relationships have impact on the client and brings patterns that are evident in social relationships to the forefront. Once these relationships and patterns are disclosed, issues can be reframed and detoxified, enabling them to correct the patterns. It helps clients to identify support systems that they were not aware was there and this can facilitate feeling better. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Min, J.  (2005).  Cultural competency: A key to effective future social work with racially and ethnically diverse elders.  Families in Society, 86, 3, 347-358.

                With 2 dominant demographic imperatives of the aging population & increasing racial/ethnic diversity of the older population, current & future generations of racially & ethnically diverse elders are expected to experience complex & diverse sets of service needs. More than ever, the social work profession needs a strategic approach to working with current & future generations of diverse elders. The author presents information that allows a better understanding of future issues & problems facing racial/ethnic minority elders & discusses how social work can effectively & successfully address these future needs. Five specific recommendations are proposed: (a) reconceptualize race/ethnicity & diversity in social work practice, (b) identify & develop a conceptual framework for social work with racially & ethnically diverse elders, (c) consider a multidisciplinary community-oriented & neighborhood-based approach, (d) advance culturally competent gerontological social work with diverse elders, & (e) strengthen gerontological social work education with an emphasis on cultural competence.

Moon, A.  (2000).  Perceptions of elder abuse among various cultural groups: Similarities and differences.  Generations, 24, 2, 75-80.

                13 scenarios were used in interviews to measure and compare perceptions of elder abuse and help-seeking behaviors of 30 African-American, 30 Caucasian-American, and 30 Korean-American elderly women (aged 60-75 yrs). Significant group differences existed in perceptions of elder abuse with regard to 6 scenarios, and Korean-American women were substantially less likely to perceive a given situation as abusive than the other groups. The groups also showed significant differences in their indications of the likelihood of their use of formal and informal sources of help in the case of elder abuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Murdock, V.  (2005)Guided by ethics: Religion and spirituality in gerontological social work practice.  Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 45, 1-2, 131-154.

            This random national survey anonymously explored 299 gerontological social workers' attitudes about spirituality & the use of spiritual interventions in practice. Respondents support the inclusion of religion & spirituality in education & practice as a diversity component, as part of holistic assessment, & as a fundamental aspect of human life. Nearly 70% of respondents report little or no preparation on spiritual issues during their schooling & only 24.5% report satisfaction with their educational preparation on this topic. While respondents' personal spirituality correlates positively & weakly with the use of spiritual interventions, it is ethical attitudes toward spiritual interventions that predict the use of spiritual interventions by gerontological social workers.

Scogin, F., Welsh, D., Hanson, A., Stump, J., & Coates, A.  (2005).  Evidence-based psychotherapies for depression in older adults.  Clinical Psychology: Science and Pracitce, 12, 3, 222-237.

                We conducted an evidence-based review of psychological treatments for geriatric depression using coding criteria, and we identified six treatments to be beneficial: behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and reminiscence therapy. Other interventions were found to be promising but were lacking replication. These findings suggest that (a) there are several treatment choices for consumers and practitioners across a relatively broad range of theoretical orientations and modalities, (b) there needs to be a recognition of the viability of psychological treatments for depressed elders by other disciplines, and (c) there is an opportunity to provide training in evidence-based treatments for present and future providers to the growing number of older adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Straka, S. & Montminy, L.  (2006)Responding to the needs of older women experiencing domestic abuse.  Violence Against Women, 12, 3, 251-267.

            Older women experiencing domestic violence are an invisible group who fall into the gap between two forms of family violence: elder abuse & domestic violence. This article reviews the literature in both fields, describing each paradigm, how it explains & responds to its specific form of violence, & why neither has been able to provide an adequate response to domestic violence against older women. A collaborative response is needed, accounting for both the age & gender dimensions of the problem.

Wallace, G.  (2001).  Grandparent caregivers: Emerging issues in elder law and social work practice.  Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 34, 3, 127-136.

                There has been dramatic increases in grandparents raising and helping to raise their grandchildren over the last years. A few of the most common explanations offered include: drug abuse of parents, teen pregnancy, divorce, the rapid increase in single parent households, mental and physical illnesses, AIDS, crime, child abuse and neglect, and incarceration of the parents. Grandparent caregivers are the backbone of many families in distress, keeping families intact which would otherwise fall apart, but they also pay a price--taking care of children at a median age of 57 can be stressful, especially since many of the children have severe developmental, emotional or other problems. Caregiving grandparents need a great deal of assistance in order to maintain their fragile families. Much of this assistance will have to be offered in a holistic way in which professionals of various disciplines collaborate to empower multigenerational families to overcome the obstacles before them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Williams, E. & Donnelly, J.  (2002).  Older Americans and AIDS: Some guidelines for prevention.  Social Work, 47, 105-113.

                Social workers provide senior citizens with varied services in diverse settings and are in a position to assume leadership in slowing the spread of AIDS among this age group. Unfortunately older people often do not receive the knowledge needed to protect themselves against infection. Historically, older Americans have been largely ignored by HIV/AIDS prevention programs. The major risk behaviors among senior citizens include sexual activity without using condoms, alcohol and drug use, blood transfusions received before 1985, and misdiagnosed opportunistic illness such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, respiratory disease, and sexually transmitted diseases. The article discusses guidelines that can help social workers provide prevention education to older Americans. Social work's primary prevention AIDS education efforts can help older adults safely live out the rest of their lives secure in the understanding that they possess the knowledge to protect themselves from HIV/AIDS infection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

SW 313  Practice II

ACTIVITY - Congratulations, You’re Retired

Barer, B.M. (2001). The "grands and greats" of very old black grandmothers. Journal of Aging Studies, 15: 1-11.

                Examined the grandparent role among 96 black women 85 years of age and older, living in the San Francisco Bay Area. In a qualitative analysis of interview data, the authors found factors that contribute to closeness and what conditions create constraints. Aside from the physical limitations of those in advanced old age, impediments to intergenerational relationships include social changes such as age segregation, entitlement programs for the aged, and the generation gap. Despite these constraints, most grandmothers experienced social and emotional rewards from their children's children. Close relationships are enhanced by proximity, frequency of contact, mutual support, and past history of surrogate parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Donorfio, L.M., and Sheehan, N.W. (2001). Relationship dynamics between aging mothers and caregiving daughters: Filial expectations and responsibilities. Journal of Adult Developmental, 8(1): 39-48.

                Used qualitative analysis to examine filial responsibility and the relationship dynamics between aging mothers and their caregiving daughters. In-depth interviews with 11 mother-daughter pairs (daughters aged 48-60 yrs; mothers aged 71-92 yrs) explored respondents' sense of filial responsibility, filial expectations, the congruence between mothers' and daughters' expectations, and strategies used to negotiate incongruent expectations. Employing grounded theory, 7 categorical themes emerged describing the daughters' perceptions and experiences of providing care. Themes were later linked to the mothers' responses concerning filial responsibility and their experiences of receiving care. Three approaches to caregiving emerged: undifferentiated, dispassionate, and mutually balanced. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Ingersoll-Dayton, B., Neal, M.B., and Hammer, L.B. (2001). Aging parents helping adult children: The experience of the sandwiched generation. Family Relations, 50(3): 262-271. 

                Adults who juggle work and family responsibilities are particularly vulnerable when they are coring for both children and aging parents.  Ingersoll-Dayton et al. examined the provision of help to working couples in the sandwiched generation by the aging parents for who they provide care.  Their research builds on previous efforts that highlight the benefits of caregiving and illuminates reactions to receiving held from aging parents.

Strozier, A., McGrew, L., Krisman, K., & Smith, A.  (2005)Kinship Care Connection: A school-based intervention for kinship caregivers and the children in their care.  Children and Youth Services Review, 27, 9, 1011-1029.            

            Whereas child welfare has championed efforts in kinship care practice, policy, & research, there is a growing need for other systems of care, specifically the school system, to improve the ways in which kinship care families are supported. This study highlights outcomes from the Kinship Care Connection (KCC), an innovative school-based intervention designed to increase children's self-esteem & to mediate kin caregiver burden. Current issues regarding the status of kinship caregiving families involved in the school system are highlighted using quantitative data & case studies based on: (1) 34 caregivers participating in support groups & case management services, including counseling, advocacy, & resource procurement, & (2) 63 children participating in tutoring, mentoring & counseling, advocacy, & resource procurement. Two case studies describing the familial experience in KCC will detail the process evaluation related to this intergenerational intervention. Results indicate increased self-esteem in children & mediated kin caregiver burden for families participating in the KCC. Implications for social work practice include suggestions for ways social workers & the school system can better support kinship caregiving families.

SW 314 Human Behavior Social Environment

ACTIVITY - Personhood Portrait

ACTIVITY - Get Acquainted: When I am 80 Exercise

ACTIVITY – Elder Abuse

Antonucci, T.C., Lansford, J.E., Schaberg, L., Baltes, M., Takahashi, K., Smith, J., Akiyanna, H., and Fuhrer, R. (2001). Widowhood and illness: A Comparison of social network characteristics in France, Germany, Japan, and the United States. Psychology and Aging, 16(4): 655-665.

            The purpose of this article was to examine the social network characteristics of adults aged 70 to 90 years in France, Germany, Japan, and the United States are facing widowhood and illness. Using representative samples from each of the four countries, participants were drawn. Factors used to determine resource deficit profiles included whether the respondents were widowed, ill, both or neither. The answers to these variables were directly related to social network characteristics for German and Japanese adults, were differentially related by gender and age for French adults, and were not related to social networks of Americans. Other elements such as country, gender, and age differences in total network size, proportion of close network members, and frequency of contact with network members reported. Overall, the article highlights the importance of investigating sociocultural factors.

Bengtson, V.  (2001).  Beyond the nuclear family: The increasing importance of multigenerational bonds.  Journal of Marriage and the Family, 63, 1, 1-16.

                Discusses the importance of multigenerational family relationships in US society. Family structures and functions are increasingly diverse. Reasons that multigenerational family relations will become more important in the 21st century include: (1) demographic changes of aging populations; (2) the increasing importance of grandparents and other kin in fulfilling family functions; (3) the strength and resilience of intergenerational solidarity over time. Family multigenerational relations are increasingly diverse because of divorce and stepfamily relationship changes in family structure, the increased longevity of kin, and the diversity of intergenerational relationship types. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Bhatti, M.  (2006).  “When I’m in the garden I can create my own paradise”: Homes and gardens in later life.  The Sociological Review, 54, 2, 318-341.

            This paper brings together recent work on later life & considers the effects of ageing in relation to participation & interest in gardening. Whilst there is considerable research & literature on issues such as health, housing, & social care, the significance of the garden in process of home-making is less well understood. Using qualitative data from the Mass Observation Data Archive, key physical, psycho-social processes that impact on the use of the garden & gardening activities are examined. It will be suggested that the garden can have major significance in the (re) creation of "home" in later life.

Boyle, G.  (2005)The role of autonomy in explaining mental ill-health and depression among older people living in long-term care settingsAgeing and Society, 25, 5, 731-748.

            This paper examines the extent of mental ill-health & probable depression among older people in long-term care. It presents selected findings from a study in Greater Belfast, Northern Ireland, that compared the quality of life, autonomy & mental health of older people living in nursing & residential homes with those of older people living in private households who were receiving domiciliary care. Structured interviews were conducted with 214 residents in institutions & 44 older people receiving domiciliary care. The study found that those in private households were more severely physically-impaired & had a higher level of mental ill-health than the residents of institutional homes. It is suggested, however, that the mental ill-health effects were associated less with physical impairments than with the restrictions placed on the older person's decisional autonomy, & that long-term care environments that constrain the older person's autonomy contribute to the development of depression. Although the UK National Service Framework for Older People specified that those with depression should be given treatment & support, priority should also be given to preventing the depression associated with living in long-term care settings.

Cairney, J. & Kraus, N.  (2005)The social distribution of psychological distress and depression in older adults.  Journal of Aging and Health, 17, 6, 807-835.

            Objective: This study examines the associations between social position & mental health & explores whether differences in distress & depression by social position can be accounted for by differences in the major components of the stress process model. We extend previous work by including an ethnocultural measure alongside more traditional measures of social position. Method: Secondary data analysis of the 1994 National Population Health Survey. Results: Consistent with findings from studies of younger adults, mental health in later life is determined in part by age, gender, marital status, education, & ethnocultural factors. The data indicate that the life experiences connected to these social positions are largely responsible for these effects. Discussion: Our findings suggest that key social factors are related to mental health in late life, because one's position in the social structure shapes the stressors they encounter & the resources they have at their disposal to cope with them.

Caputo, R.  (2001).  Depression and health among grandmothers co-residing with grandchildren in two cohorts of women.  Families in Society, 82, 5, 473-483.

                This paper examined depression and health of grandmothers who co-resided with grandchildren in 1997 in two cohorts of women, one aged 30-44 in 1967, and the other aged 14-24 in 1968. Co-resident grandmothers in both cohorts were more likely than other mothers to have higher levels of depression and about one-fifth were likely to exhibit levels high enough to place them "at risk" for clinical depression. Co-residency, however, was not found to be a good predictor of either level of depression or changes in the level of depression, but prior levels of depression were positively related to changes in the level of depression among mothers in general when controlling for current or previous co-residency. Health status was found to be a good predictor of depression when accounting for co-residency and work effort among other factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Carr, D.  (2004)The desire to date and remarry in older widows and widowers.  Journal of Marriage and Family, 66, 4, 1051-1068.

            This study explores gender differences in older widowed persons' interest in dating & remarriage, & the implications of these desires for psychological adjustment to loss. Analyses are based on the Changing Lives of Older Couples study (N = 210). Men's interest in dating & remarriage is conditional upon the amount of social support received from friends. Six months after spousal loss, only those men with low or average levels of social support from friends are more likely than women to report interest in remarrying someday. Similar patterns emerge for interest in dating 18 months after loss. Persons who both want & have a romantic relationship report significantly fewer depressive symptoms 18 months after loss, yet this relationship is attributable to their greater socioeconomic resources.

 Cox, C.  (2002).  Empowering African American custodial grandparents.  Social Work, 47, 45-54.

                The increase in grandparent-headed households is receiving much attention as the needs and concerns of these grandparents become more widely known. However, to the extent that services focus on the problems of this population, there is an inherent danger in overlooking their unique strengths and abilities. Empowerment training builds on these strengths to enable people to develop self-efficacy and their own problem-solving skills. In so doing, those empowered grandparents further empower the communities in which they live. This article describes an empowerment training project and its curriculum that was developed for a group of 14 African American grandmothers (aged 50-75 yrs). The program resulted in strengthened parenting skills, and development of the participants into community peer educators. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Desselle, D. & Proctor, T.  (2000).  Advocating for the elderly hard-of-hearing population: The deaf people we ignore.  Social Work, 45, 3, 277-281.

                The writers discuss the issue of how social workers should deal with those that are hard-of-hearing. They note that because hearing impairment is not a visible disability, social workers may be at a loss when seeking to communicate with people whose hearing is impaired. They assert that what sometimes occurs is that communication and relationships suffer, information breakdowns occur, and people may speak in front of the hard-of-hearing person as if he or she is not there. They explain that one of social work's basic principles is empowerment with dignity, and they contend that this principle especially applies to people with hearing loss. They provide a list of practice interventions for improving communication with those who have hearing problems, and they suggest a number of coping mechanisms for this population. They contend that for social workers dealing with clients who are hard of hearing, the most important factor is awareness, and they outline various other factors that should be taken into account.

Gibson, P.  (2002).  African American grandmothers as caregivers: Answering the call to help their grandchildren.  Families in Society, 83, 1, 35-43.

                Examined the experiences of African American grandmothers who have assumed the parental role in kinship care for their grandchildren. 12 46-76 yr old grandmothers described their own experiences and why they assumed the role of becoming a mother again. Six interrelated themes emerged from interviews: (1) tradition of kinkeeping, (2) relationship with grandchildren, (3) distrust of the foster care system, (4) grandmother as the only resource, (5) strong relationship with the Lord, and (6) refusal of the grandchild's other grandmother to assist with caregiving. These themes are used as a guide to make recommendations to enhance the lives of grandmothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Greene, R. & Wright, M.  (2005)The contemporary older man: Summary and discussion.  Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 32, 1, 135-138.

            This edition of the journal included eight articles on the contemporary older man and the challenges and opportunities he may face. Taken together, the articles offer several educational opportunities for discussing older men within schools of social work human behavior content. More research is needed to answer questions related to older men. Thus far, research has failed to sufficiently explore the ramifications related to men's successful aging.

Hequembourg, A. & Brallier, S.  (2005)Gendered stories of parental caregiving among siblingsJournal of Aging Studies, 19, 1, 53-71.

            Using data from in-depth interviews with eight pairs of male & female siblings, we investigate the influence of gender on the division of responsibility among adult children who are providing care to their elderly parent & how parental caregiving provides an opportunity for the explicit (re)negotiation of gender dynamics across household boundaries. We explore the ways that "helper brothers" & "co-provider brothers" divide care with their sisters, & the impact of this division of care on the sisters' roles as coordinators of care & their future plans for their parents' care. "Specialized knowledge" also emerges as an important factor in the gendered division of care among the respondents. Finally, we examine the consequences of our findings with regards to gender relations & discuss the limitations of this exploratory study.

Kivnick, H, & Murry, S.  (2001).  Life strengths interview guide.  Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 34, 7-32.

                While standardization of assessment tools in gerontological social work permits comparability across individuals, and within individuals across time paradoxically, this same standardization eliminates from consideration those individual differences that may have most to do with client outcomes. This manuscript presents a theoretical and practical basis for assessing strengths in frail elder clients, and for using these strengths in designing and implementing individual case plans. Further, an assessment tool is introduced in the form of a set of specific questions that may be used by practitioners in meaningfully gathering information about personal strengths and assets from frail elder clients.

Kwok, H.  (2006)The son also acts as major caregiver to elderly parents: a study of the sandwich generation in Hong Kong.  Current Sociology, 54, 2, 257-272.

            This article investigates the care support pattern of the middle-aged sandwich generation towards their elderly parents. Unlike most western reports, Hong Kong adult sons reveal an active participation in the actual behaviour of care of their elderly parents, especially in financial and emotional support - not much less than their female sibling counterparts. This article further compares the perception of care responsibility from the receiveras vs the giveras perspective. The results show consistent findings between values towards elderly care and actual care behaviours received from the parentsa side, in which the sons are expected and are acting as the major caregiver, much more so than the daughters. However, inconsistent results are found regarding the major responsibility towards various family members between the two generations. Adult children tend to take their own children (or the third generation) as the top priority of their family responsibilities, while elderly parents come in second and their own spouse comes third. The pattern of elderly support in Hong Kong is argued to be a product of patriarchal norms within a changing gendered societal context. The author contends that the pattern can be explained by the interaction of blood relations with a gendered division of labour.

Levine, J.  (2001).  Working with victims of persecution: Lessons from Holocaust survivors.  Social Work, 46, 4, 350-360.

                It is estimated that 25 to 30 million people are forced to leave their homes because of human rights violations or threats to their lives. Such massive dislocations at the international level result in significant numbers of diverse, persecuted populations seeking asylum in the United States. It is estimated that as many as 400,000 victims of torture now reside in the United States, with many survivors suffering in silence. The challenge for social workers is to discover this often hidden, vulnerable population and to serve them. Among all the populations experiencing the trauma and stress of persecution, most is know about Holocaust survivors. Through examining the long-term effects of massive psychic trauma gleaned from research on Holocaust survivors and their children, this article addresses the skills, techniques, and insights about current refugee populations that can be incorporated into social work practice and training. (Journal abstract.)

Mental health and mental illness in later life [Special issue].  (2002).  Generations, 26, 1.

                A special issue on mental health and mental illness in later life. Topics discussed include the latest developments in basic research in, effective assessment and treatment of, and public policy on aging and mental health.

Milewski-Hertlein, K.  (2001).  The use of a socially constructed genogram in clinical practice.  American Journal of Family Therapy, 29, 1, 23-38.

                Discusses the rationale for a socially constructed genogram, allowing for multiple definitions of family to be represented. It describes the role of the problem system and the utility of this genogram in these situations. It describes the set-up of a socially constructed genogram and provides clinical examples. The socially constructed genogram meets the task of the standard genogram in the following areas: It can be useful for engaging the problem-system in therapy. It can arrange for key experiences in the client's relationships and behaviors. It provides the clinician a way of understanding what relationships have impact on the client and brings patterns that are evident in social relationships to the forefront. Once these relationships and patterns are disclosed, issues can be reframed and detoxified, enabling them to correct the patterns. It helps clients to identify support systems that they were not aware was there and this can facilitate feeling better. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

  Moon, A.  (2000).  Perceptions of elder abuse among various cultural groups: Similarities and differences.  Generations, 24, 2, 75-80.

                13 scenarios were used in interviews to measure and compare perceptions of elder abuse and help-seeking behaviors of 30 African-American, 30 Caucasian-American, and 30 Korean-American elderly women (aged 60-75 yrs). Significant group differences existed in perceptions of elder abuse with regard to 6 scenarios, and Korean-American women were substantially less likely to perceive a given situation as abusive than the other groups. The groups also showed significant differences in their indications of the likelihood of their use of formal and informal sources of help in the case of elder abuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Nelson-Becker, H.  (2005)Religion and coping in older adults: a social work perspective.  Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 45, 1-2, 51-67.

            Religion is an important coping resource for many older adults. This paper briefly describes social work's religious roots, makes a distinction between religion & spirituality for older adults, & presents empirical data showing how older adults employ religious strategies to cope with life challenge. The study reports on religious coping in an available sample of 79 European American & African American older adults residing in urban community dwellings. Implications suggest how social workers & others may support religious coping.

Probstfield, M.  (2001, April).  Perceptions of death.  Paper presented at the Souther Sociological Society Conference, Atlanda, GA.

                The purpose of this paper is to explore how people perceive their own death, with focus on how people know or comprehend their own death at various age levels. Three different age cohorts will be examined: an elderly, middle-aged, & typical college-level population. Surveys & personal interviews will be used within each age cohort to obtain comparative results.

Ramsey-Klawsnik, H.  (2000).  Elder-abuse offenders: A typology.  Generations, 24, 2, 6-12.

                Part of a special issue on abuse and neglect of older people. The writer examines elder-abuse offenders. She notes that offenders are usually viewed as under stress or as guilty of criminal behavior. She offers a typology of elder-abuse offenders, listing five main types: the overwhelmed; the impaired; the narcissistic; the domineering or bullying; and the sadistic. She concludes that recognition of the factors and variables of elder maltreatment cases are important in prevention, recognition, and intervention in such cases and that the typology offered may aid this process.

Salter, C. (2002). (Not) the same old story. Fast Company (55), 78-86.

                Eden Alternative is a change-minded organization determined to save a critically ill patent: long-term care for the elderly.  The nursing-home industry should be about living, argues founder Bill Thomas, not about dying.  Here’s his prescription  and lessons for changing any industry.

Waldrop, D. & Weber, J.  (2001).  From grandparent to caregiver: The stress and satisfaction of raising grandchildren.  Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 82, 5, 461-472.

                The circumstances faced by grandparents who become caregivers for their grandchildren are complicated and stressful. In-depth interviews were conducted with 54 grandparent caregivers (37 grandmothers and 17 grandfathers). Analysis of qualitative data involved the use of QSR NUD*IST software for organizing and coding interview transcripts. Subsets of financial, family, and legal problems specific to grandparent caregiving were identified. Grandparent caregivers acquire problem-specific coping strategies, which include taking action, talking about feelings, religious faith, focus on the grandchild, outreach to others, and some "less desirable" means. Caregiver satisfaction was related to the joys of children, the tasks of child-rearing participating in grandchildren's activities, a new focus for life, and watching a child's accomplishments. This study identified the need for additional research about interventions for the stress and coping responses of grandparent caregivers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Williams, E. & Donnelly, J.  (2002).  Older Americans and AIDS: Some guidelines for preventionSocial Work, 47, 105-111.

                Social workers provide senior citizens with varied services in diverse settings and are in a position to assume leadership in slowing the spread of AIDS among this age group. Unfortunately older people often do not receive the knowledge needed to protect themselves against infection. Historically, older Americans have been largely ignored by HIV/AIDS prevention programs. The major risk behaviors among senior citizens include sexual activity without using condoms, alcohol and drug use, blood transfusions received before 1985, and misdiagnosed opportunistic illness such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, respiratory disease, and sexually transmitted diseases. The article discusses guidelines that can help social workers provide prevention education to older Americans. Social work's primary prevention AIDS education efforts can help older adults safely live out the rest of their lives secure in the understanding that they possess the knowledge to protect themselves from HIV/AIDS infection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

 SW 316 Culturally Responsive Social Work Practice

ACTIVITY – Myths about Aging Exercise

Beyene, Y., Becker, G., and Mayen, N. (2002). Perception of aging and sense of well-being among Latino elderly.  Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 17: 155-172.

                Examined perception of aging and sense of well-being among Latino elderly. Data from in-depth interviews of 83 Latino elders (aged 51-97 yrs) show that perception of aging is influenced by the level and quality of social support, and fulfilled cultural expectations, and having strong faith in God. The authors note that the above factors also seem to influence sense of emotional well-being despite physical functional capacity and chronic health conditions. The most reported concerns by all study participants are fear of loneliness and the prospect of living in nursing homes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Ferraro, F.R. (2001). Assessment and evaluation issues regarding Native American elderly adults. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, 7(4): 311-318.

                This paper will detail assessment and evaluation issues with Native American elderly adults. Recommendations and implications of such assessment and evaluation follow and include areas such as general background factors, cultural and family issues that impact assessment, problems to overcome, and finally a look into neuropsychological assessment. These issues will converge on the notion that mental health and neuropsychological assessment issues are relevant to Native American elderly, not because of the paucity of research in this area, but because Native American elderly are a fast-growing population, most in need of such vital services. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Sanchez, C.D. (1992). Mental health issues: The elderly Hispanic. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 25 (1), 69-84.

                Programs designed to provide mental health services to special population groups, such as the Hispanic elderly, must consider the cultural dynamics of that population, taking into account the multifaceted nature of the forces that influence mental illnesses and/or mental health. Persons aged 65+ yrs make up only 5% of the Hispanic population, and these persons are either underemployed or unemployed. Their economic situation has an effect on their physical and emotional well-being. They are exposed to a greater number of stresses and have fewer psychological and social resources for coping with stress. In spite of the severe mental health risk factors encountered by the Hispanic elderly, lack of accessibility to much needed health care and other services continues to be a major issue. Recommendations are given for effectively meeting the mental health needs of the Hispanic elderly population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

SW 412  Social Work Practice III

Balaswamy, S. & Dabelko, H.  (2002).  Using a stakeholder participatory model in a community-wide service needs assessment of elderly residents: A case study.  Journal of Community Practice, 10, 1, 55-70.

                This paper discusses a collaborative approach to a community-wide needs assessment in a county in Ohio. A neighborhood service provider for elderly residents in the community initiated the research project. To promote ownership in the evaluation process and to conserve resources, the evaluators used a stakeholder participatory approach. This effort not only resulted in increased cooperation among all parties involved (stakeholders, evaluators, community agencies), but culminated in the acceptance and utilization of controversial findings. (Journal abstract.)

Travis, S.S., and Stremmel, A.J. (1999). Predictors of the likelihood to provide intergenerational activities in child and adult day care centers. Children and Youth Services 20 (1/2), 101-114.

                Examined the relative contribution of various factors to the likely provision of intergenerational activities in child and adult day care settings. 226 administrators (aged 20-74 yrs) rated their: (a) current frequency of contact with children and older adults; (b) current frequency of intergenerational activities in their settings; (c) attitudes toward intergenerational exchanges, using the Intergenerational Exchanges Attitudes Scale; and (d) self-reported likelihood to provide intergenerational activities in the future. Attitudes toward intergenerational exchanges accounted for significantly more of the overall variance in likelihood scores than did either current intergenerational program activity or current intergenerational contact. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Vernon, A.E. (1999). Designing for change: Attitudes toward the elderly and intergenerational programming. Children and Youth Services 20 (1/2), 161-173.

                Common assumptions are examined about the prevalence of negative attitudes toward the elderly. This issue may have important implications for planning intergenerational programs aimed at attitude change. There is little historical evidence for the popular notion that intergenerational relations have been gradually eroding in Western society. Results of research suggest that negative attitudes about old age may vary according to situational, contextual, and social factors. In general, there is only a weak link between what people generally think about aging, and how they may behave toward elderly individuals. For maximum effectiveness, program planners should focus on changing demonstrably negative perceptions of old age within a specific context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

SW  416  Social Welfare Policies and Issues

ACTIVITY – Review living wills

Bartels, S. & Smyer, M.  (2002).  Mental disorders of aging: An emerging mental health crisis?  Generations, 26, 1, 14-20.

                Part of a special issue on mental health and mental illness in later life. Although there are effective treatments for many late-life mental health problems, a gap exists between current mental health services and the infrastructure required to meet the anticipated dramatic increase in the number of older adults with mental disorders. A public health crisis could arise from the substantial under-investment in research, knowledge dissemination, and service development. A major health initiative by policy makers, providers, and researchers is necessary to avert the substantial adverse effect on public health and health-care financing in the future and the substantial individual and family costs of geriatric mental illness.

Berkman, B., Gardner, D., Zodikoff, B., & Harootyan, L.  (2005).  Social work in health care with older adults: future challenges.  Families in Society, 86, 3, 329-337.

                Dramatic changes in demography, epidemiology, & the financing & delivery of health care have significantly affected the lives of older adults & their families. The authors review current & future trends in aging & health care in the United States & their implications for social work practice in enhancing the health & well-being of older adults & their caregivers. Health care social work in the 21st century requires the development & application of evidence-based knowledge that reflects the interrelatedness of aging, physical & mental health, & intergenerational family processes. The authors demonstrate the value of social work research to issues that are in the forefront of gerontological health care practice, policy, & education.

Bronstein, L. & Admiraal, K.  (2005).  Implications of an aging population on the delivery of public sector social services Families in Society, 86, 1, 47-54.

                Over the coming years, demographers report a rapid increase in the number of people over age 65, and in particular the number of persons from ethnic and racial minority groups over 65. While professionals in aging services are paying close attention to these trends and their implications, there are widespread implications that go beyond aging services. Using New York State as a case in point, this paper utilizes literature, demographics, and interviews with key informants to focus on two major trends associated with these demographic shifts: the increase in family caregiving and grandparents raising grandchildren. These trends are examined for their impact on the design and delivery of services including TANF, child welfare and adult protective services. Professionals beyond those in aging services are called upon to be aware of the impact of these aging demographics for clients in the array of public social service systems, and to meet the challenges of these demographic trends with a multigenerational and multicultural agenda.

Galambos, C. M. (1998). Preserving end-of-life autonomy: The Patient Self-Determination Act and the Uniform Health Care Decisions Act. Health and Social Work 23 (4), 275-281.

                As medical technology continues to advance and health care choices become more complicated, the preservation of end-of-life autonomy is an increasingly important issue faced by various client populations. This article examines two legislative efforts aimed at preserving end-of-life autonomy: The Patient Self-Determination Act and the Uniform Health Care Decisions Act. The enactment of both acts will provide a more comprehensive approach to advance directive planning. The article advocates for passage of the Uniform Health Care Decisions Act in all 50 states. Implications for social work practice are discussed from a research, community action, and clinical perspective. (Journal abstract.)

Greene, R.R., & Knee, R.I. (1996). Shaping the policy practice agenda of social work in the field of aging. Social Work, 41(5): 553-559.

                Argues that contemporary social work practice will, of necessity, involve a politically active stance that will strengthen and redefine the relationship between legislative policy and social work practice in the field of aging. Because the range of services to elderly people and their families encompass mental health clinics and hospitals, core policy change might transform the social service industry. An increasing need for agencies to develop innovative programming, evaluate practice effectiveness, and compete for funding exists due to changes proposed by Congress. Social work practitioners are challenged to refine or redefine their goals while remaining true to social work values and ethics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Feldman, P., Nadash, P., & Gursen, M.  (2001).  Improving communication between researchers and policy makers in long-term care: Or, researchers are from Mars; policy makers are from Venus.  The Gerontologist, 41, 3, 312-321.

                The writers report that in their work with the Home Care Research Initiative, they experimented with a number of dissemination tactics and came to realize the difficulties in tailoring information for different policy audiences. They relate their exploration of the problem of dissemination through discussions they held with state long-term care (LTC) policymakers about their research information needs and through their examination of the activities of groups that communicate LTC data. They state that they supplemented this "environmental scan" with a convention of LTC researchers and policy makers to explore their findings. They indicate that their analysis has revealed a mismatch between the activities researchers and brokers engage in and the perceived needs of LTC policymakers. They present their recommendations for synthesizing, translating, and disseminating complex and important policy-relevant research findings and for bridging the gap between researchers and policymakers.

Levande, D.I., Herrick, J.M., and Sung, K. (2000). Eldercare in the United States and South Korea: Balancing family and community support. Journal of Family Issues.

                The United States and South Korea face the inevitable fact that their population of older adults is increasing dramatically. Regardless of noticeable differences in size, location, population characteristics, social organization, and cultural values and traditions, both countries must make appropriate decisions concerning this element of their overall society. This article attempts to address some of the questions about current and future care for the elderly in both countries. It compares the informal system of caregiving by family and the formal system of government policies along with private services in the United States and South Korea.

Older Americans Act.  (2000).  Available online: http://www.aoa.gov/about/legbudg/oaa/legbedg_oaa.asp.

                The Older Americans Act was originally signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on July 14, 1965.  In addition to creating the Administration on Aging, it authorized grants to States for community planning and services programs, as well as for research, demonstration and training projects in the field of aging. Later amendments to the Act added grants to Area Agencies on Aging for local needs identification, planning, and funding of services, including but not limited to nutrition programs in the community as well as for those who are homebound; programs which serve Native American elders; services targeted at low-income minority elders; health promotion and disease prevention activities; in-home services for frail elders, and those services which protect the rights of older persons such as the long term care ombudsman program. (from Administration on Aging website)

Otto, J.  (2000).  The role of adult protective services in addressing abuse.  Generations, 24, 2, 33-28.

                Part of a special issue on abuse and neglect of older people. The writer examines the role of Adult Protection Services (APS) in addressing elder abuse. She indicates that APS has a long history in the U.S., with the earliest formal study on its importance carried out in 1960. She notes that the area of APS has grown and matured since the 1960s, and she reveals that by the mid 1990s, many states had reformed and expanded their APS laws. She asserts that many states have also increased funding for staff, training, public education, offender registries, and emergency client services. She concludes that APS plays a growing role in elder-abuse prevention and has become recognized and valued for its service to the most vulnerable adults.

Prince, M.  (2002, August 19).  Graying of America calls for new benefits strategies: Changing demographics mean employers will have to attract, retain older workers.  Business Insurance, 36, 33, 3.

                Reports the benefit strategies for making for attracting the aging population to work in the U.S. Enhancement of the benefits for the older workers; Changes on the retirement plan strategy; Determination on the passion of every employee.

Rizzo, V. & Rowe, J.  (2006).  Studies the cost-effectiveness of social work services in aging: A review of the literature.  Research on Social Work Practice, 16, 1, 67-73.

                The American population aged 65 years & older is growing rapidly, creating an increased demand for social workers. Reimbursement structures of Medicare & Medicaid present significant barriers for aging individuals seeking social work services as well as social workers wanting to provide services to the elderly. To build a case for the modification of these reimbursement structures, a review of studies of social work services in aging was conducted to (a) make explicit the current knowledge of the efficacy & cost-effectiveness of these services, (b) identify current gaps in knowledge, (c) promote a research agenda to address the gaps, & (e) assure that the knowledge identified addresses payers' needs to understand the value of social work services in aging. The results indicate that social work interventions can have a positive impact on the health care costs, the use of health care services, & the quality of life of older Americans.

Serafini, M.  (2002).  AARP’s new direction.  National Journal, 34, 1, 28-32.

                Discusses the September 2001 suspension of the lobbying campaign of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) for a prescription drug benefit for Medicare recipients in the United States. Political agendas regarding the campaign; Controversies in AARP; Significance of the marketing background of AARP Executive Director Bill Novelli

Sullivan, M.D. (2002). The Illusion of Patient Choice in End-of-Life Decisions. American Journal Of Geriatric Psychiatry, 10(4): 365-471.

                After passage of the Patient Self-Determination Act and the Cruzan decision by the Supreme Court, honoring individual patient choice has become the primary means by which we have sought to improve the quality of life of the dying patient. However, the decision-making capacity of the dying patient is usually compromised, and advance directives have not consistently improved the dying process. We respect patient autonomy in order to respect the patient as a person; patient autonomy should be respected to the degree that it is intact. When autonomy is significantly diminished, as it usually is in dying patients, respecting autonomy reconstructed from documents or proxies may not be the best way to respect the dying person. We rather need to seek social consensus about when patients are dying, the nature of a "good death," and when it is preferable to a longer life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Yates, J. & Gillespie, W.  (2000).  The elderly and prison policy.  Journal of Aging and Social Policy, 11, 2-3, 167-175,

                Part of a special issue on advancing aging policy as the 21st century begins. Noting that America's prisons are seeing a significant rise in the number of elderly prisoners that they deal with, the writers discuss this increase as a burgeoning policy concern. They consider some of the means that have been employed to tackle the problems posed by an aging prison population and provide some alternative solutions to addressing this situation. They argue that the increased costs of medical care for elderly inmates and the impending costs for prison expansion and renovation in coming years may outweigh the benefits society receives from incarcerating the elderly.

 SW 501  Foundations of Social Work Practice I

ACTIVITY – Life Review Assignment

ACTIVITY – Suicide Recognition and Recovery Factors

Bergeron, L. & Gray, B.  (2003).  Ethical dilemmas of reporting suspected elder abuseSocial Work, 48, 1, 96-106.

                Elder abuse reporting laws exist in every state to protect elderly people being abused physically or emotionally, suffering from neglect, or experiencing financial exploitation. Support groups for caregivers of elderly individuals may help prevent elder abuse by reducing caregiver stress and linking caregivers to community services. Using case illustrations, the authors raise the dilemmas that group facilitators face when deciding whether to report a group member suspected of abusing his or her elder care recipient. The ethical concerns of reporting or withholding a report are discussed, and recommendations to assist facilitators in this complex decision process are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Cohen-Mansfield, J. (2001). Nonpharmacologic interventions for inappropriate behaviors in Dementia: A review, summary, and critique. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 9(4): 361-381.

                Three prevalent psychosocial theoretical models have typically been used to explain inappropriate behaviors displayed by individuals suffering from dementia: the “unmet needs” model, a behavior/learning model, and an environmental vulnerability/reduced stress-threshold model. This article highlights the enormous emotional and financial toll of these inappropriate behaviors and interventions that may be effective according to literature review findings. The literature search found 83 nonpharmacological intervention studies which utilized the following categories of interventions: sensory, social contact, behavior therapy, staff training, structured activities, environmental interventions, medical/nursing care interventions, and combination therapies. The impact reported a positive, although sometimes small, impact for the majority.

Coon, D. W., Rider, K., Gallagher-Thompson, D. &Thompson, L. (1999). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for the treatment of late-life distress. In Duffy, M. (ed.) Handbook of Counseling and Psychotherapy with Older Adults. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc., pp 487-510.

                This chapter provides a brief overview of a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol used successfully with depressed older adults, and discusses ways to extend some key intervention techniques and strategies into group therapy and psychoeducational classes designed for depressed elders and family caregivers. The abridged CBT intervention protocol described in this chapter draws from Beck's theory of the role of cognitions in the origin and maintenance of depression (A. T. Beck et al, 1979), and Lewinsohn's theory of the role that lack of contingent positive reinforcement plays in the development and maintenance of depressive mood states (P. Lewinsohn et al, 1986). CBT in the present application with elders is a combination of these 2 theories, based on the rationale that cognitions and behaviors can instigate and sustain late-life depression and related mental health problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Cullum, C. M., Saine, K., Chan, L. D., Martin-Cook, K., Gray, K. & Weiner, M. F. (2001). Performance-based instrument to assess functional capacity in dementia: The Texas Functional Living Scale. Neuropyschiatry, Neuropsychology and Behavioral Neurology 14 (2), 103-108.

                Examined the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Texas Functional Living Scale (TFLS), a new performance-based measure of functional abilities with an emphasis on instrumental activities of daily living skills that is brief and weighted toward cognitive tasks, in 22 61-85 yr olds with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ss were administered the TFLS and a measure of global cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination). Additionally, informant-based ratings of daily living skills (Blessed Dementia Rating Scale) and emotional and behavioral status (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Behavior Rating Scale for Dementia) were obtained from caregivers of the AD patients. All Ss were re-evaluated approximately 1 mo later using the same instruments. The TFLS showed a strong correlation with the Mini-Mental State Examination. At 1 month, test-retest reliability was high, and TFLS subscale scores were highly correlated with the total score. The TFLS was moderately correlated with informant ratings of functional skills as assessed with the Blessed Dementia Rating Scale but was unrelated to emotional and behavioral symptoms as assessed with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Behavior Rating Scale for Dementia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Edwards, N. I. & Meara, J. (1999). Care of disabled older people in the community. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology 9, 363-369.

                Reviews issues and interventions to help identify at risk older people in the community who may benefit from an integrated assessment and intervention contributing to maintaining quality of life, autonomy, and independence. The concept of a comprehensive geriatric assessment is discussed and provision of comprehensive community-based case management and care is addressed. Respite care as an aspect of continuing care can be provided by health care professionals, and appropriate aids and appliances can contribute to maintaining independent functioning, postpone the need for institutionalization, and reduce input by professional and informal caregivers. With the rise in the very elderly needing support, strategies for their care need to be continuously monitored and adapted accordingly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Ferraro, F. R. (2001). Assessment and evaluation issues regarding Native American elderly adults. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology 7(4), 311-318.

                This paper will detail assessment and evaluation issues with Native American elderly adults. Recommendations and implications of such assessment and evaluation follow and include areas such as general background factors, cultural and family issues that impact assessment, problems to overcome, and finally a look into neuropsychological assessment. These issues will converge on the notion that mental health and neuropsychological assessment issues are relevant to Native American elderly, not because of the paucity of research in this area, but because Native American elderly are a fast-growing population, most in need of such vital services. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Galambos, C.M. (1997). Resolving ethical conflicts in providing case management services to the elderly. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 27(4): 57-67.

                Case management is an effective social work practice model widely used with elderly clients. However, its structure and orientation to service delivery can lead to ethical conflicts for the practitioner. This article discusses four types inherent in the case management model: autonomy vs paternalism, fiduciary relationship to the agency vs fiduciary relationship to the client, protection of client confidentiality vs sharing client information, and distributive justice vs injustice. Practice techniques are offered as a means to reduce ethical conflicts experienced by the practitioner. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Giordano, J.A. (2000). Effective communication and counseling with older adults. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 51(4): 315-324.

                Age-sensitive communication skills must be developed to achieve greater effectiveness in assisting older adults. These skills should be guided by research findings on the development changes related to normal aging. A listening-responding technique is presented outlining six principles that can be applied in a wide variety of situations. These principles are governed by the intention to preserve self-esteem and to clarify the needs of elderly clients. By using this approach with the older adult, the practitioner will achieve an effective communication process that generates accurate information, supports self-determination, and achieves a therapeutic process, (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Guttmann, D. (2001). A logotherapeutic approach to the quest of meaningful old age. In Ahearn, (ed.) Issues in Global Aging. New York: Haworth Press, pp 117-128.

                This article introduces logotherapy as a meaning centered psychotherapy and its relevance to social work with the aged.  According to this theory, human beings are motivated first and foremost to finding meaning in life.  Ways of discovering meaning are discusses along with Frankl’s “tragic triad,” consisting of guilt, suffering, and death. Each of these unavoidable factors in life offer opportunities for discovering meaning.  The importance of spirituality in old age is stressed, and Cicero’s Cato “the elder” is presented as a model for meaningful old age.

Hinkin, C.H., Castellon, S.A., Dickson-Furman, E., Daum, G., Jaffe, J., & Jarvik, L. (2001).  Screening for drug and alcohol abuse among older adults using a  modified version of the CAGE. American Journal on Addictions, 10(4), 319-326.

                Using a modified version of the CAGE, this article examines the specificity, sensitivity, and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves of the test. The CAGE is a screening measure used in the detection of older alcohol- and drug- abusing individuals. Clinical records of 97 patients screened by a geriatric substance abuse program were examined retrospectively. The authors examined the responses of patients with he inclusion of questions concerning drug abuse.

Hinrichsen, G. A. (1997). Interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed older adults. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 30 (2), 239-257.

                Discusses a brief, clinical intervention, Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) for depression, which explicitly addresses the interpersonal issues often interwoven with depression, and which holds promise as a treatment for later-life depression. IPT is a time-limited, manualized treatment for a major depressive disorder (MDD) rested in the tradition of the interpersonal school of psychiatry that emphasizes the interplay of the person and the social environment and the role of interpersonal relations in the genesis and remediation of psychiatric difficulties. The author describes the 3 phases in which IPT is conducted and provides 2 case vignettes to illustrate the application of IPT to the treatment of MDD in 2 problem areas: roles transitions and interpersonal disputes. Based on the author's clinical work, it is concluded that IPT is compatible with the general guidelines for doing psychotherapy with older people and that the majority of elderly persons with MDD and adjustment disorder have evidenced significant improvement in depressive symptoms after treatment with IPT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Kadushin G. & Egan M. (2001). Ethical dilemmas in home health care: A social work perspective. Health & Social Work 26 (3), 136-149.

                The survey in this article examined several factors related to the frequency and difficulty of resolving four ethical conflicts in a national sample of 364 home health care social workers. Ethical conflicts regarding the assessment of mental competence, self-determination, and access to services were moderately frequent and difficult to resolve, whereas conflicts over implementing advance directives were infrequent and not difficult to resolve. Each ethical conflict involved multiple stakeholders. Multiple regression analyses revealed significant predictors of the frequency and difficulty of resolving the ethical conflicts. Implications for practice and administration in home health care and social work education are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Keigher, S.  (2001).  Clinical ethics, living, and dying: New challenges for changing times.  Health and Social Work, 26, 3, 131-135.

                Many people are uncomfortable with death, and for many the dying process is a peculiarly repressed phenomenon. The very nature of the dying process in the United States changed dramatically during the past century (Bern-Klug, Gessert, & Forbes, 2001), moving from the home to hospitals and nursing homes where over 80 percent of deaths occur today, increasingly hidden from public view and disconnected from public life. This issue illuminates some of these challenges, taking up emerging ethical conundrums, practices, and policies. Some of these articles use new empirical data to tease out the wide array of dilemmas practitioners seek to resolve. Others explicate urgent issues and venues for redress through practice, advocacy, agency procedures, and government policy. (Editorial, edited.)

Kennedy, G.J., Efremova, I., Frazier, A., & Saba, A. (1999). The emerging problems of alcohol and substance abuse in late life. Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless, 8(4), 227-239.

                Treatment of substance abuse among older adults will become increasingly important as the number of aged Americans increases. The abuse of psychoactive substances is a major contributor to excess morbidity, mortality, and homelessness among persons of all ages and socioeconomic strata regardless of race or ethnicity. Alcohol and tobacco account for the majority of substance abuse-related death and disability in the United States; the former through cerebrovascular and hepatic disease, accidents and violence, the latter through chronic pulmonary disease and malignancy. Patterns of substance abuse in late life are substantially different from those observed among younger adults. However treatment may be less challenging. Effective diagnosis and treatment requires a nonpunitive, supportive, but persistent approach. This means the capacity to collect a substance intake history and the ability to formulate a treatment plan or referral strategy to an addiction specialist or residential treatment setting. It is also important for the practitioner to manage negative feelings toward patients who decline treatment or who are chronic abusers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Kennedy, G. & Tanenbaum, S.  (2000).  Psychotherapy with older adults.  American Journal of Psychotherapy, 54, 3, 386-407.

                The scope of need and possible benefit of psychosocial interventions in late life far exceeds the scientific evidence of efficacy. Most studies have been conducted in academic settings with self-selected, relatively independent older adults for whom measures of benefit were narrowly defined. In reviewing the existing literature concerning individual, group, and couples therapies in the geriatric population, the authors find that with appropriate adaptations for medical comorbidity, cognitive and sensory impairment, caregiver inclusion, and realistic modification of treatment goals, psychotherapeutic endeavors with the senior patient can prove to be highly successful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Kivnick, H, & Murry, S.  (2001).  Life strengths interview guideJournal of Gerontological Social Work, 34, 7-32.

                While standardization of assessment tools in gerontological social work permits comparability across individuals, and within individuals across time paradoxically, this same standardization eliminates from consideration those individual differences that may have most to do with client outcomes. This manuscript presents a theoretical and practical basis for assessing strengths in frail elder clients, and for using these strengths in designing and implementing individual case plans. Further, an assessment tool is introduced in the form of a set of specific questions that may be used by practitioners in meaningfully gathering information about personal strengths and assets from frail elder clients.

Koenig, T. & Spano, R.  (2006).  Professional hope in working with older adults.  Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 33, 2, 25-44.

            Writings about hope within gerontological literature assume social workers already possess hope that they can use in their practice. The purpose of this article was to challenge this assumption and to examine ways in which social workers can sustain hope in personal life, in their agencies, and in the reform of larger social structures that impact older adults. The authors examine culture change in nursing homes as an emerging approach that can be more fully developed by applying the strengths perspective to interpersonal work with elders, agency change, and broader structural change.

Koenig, T., Rinfrette, E., & Lutz, W.  (2006).  Female caregivers’ reflections on ethical decision-making: the intersection of domestic violence and elder care.  Clinical Social Work Journal, 34, 3, 361-372.

As our population ages, increasing numbers of social workers and other therapists will provide counseling to women who are caregivers of frail elders. These female caregivers often face complex ethical dilemmas in caring for a frail elder. Furthermore, these dilemmas are compounded by domestic violence in the caregiver/frail elder relationship initiated before the onset of caregiving. Illustrated with case examples, this article presents an ethical decision-making model based on an empowerment framework for helping practitioners work with caregivers who face difficult dilemmas impacted by domestic violence. Implications for strengthening clinical practice with these caregivers are discussed.

Linsk, N.  (2000).  HIV among older adults: Age-specific issues in prevention and treatment.  AIDS Reader, 10, 7, 430-444.

                A substantial and increasing number of people have acquired HIV infections in their later years, as a result of male-to-male sexual contact or blood transfusion. However, heterosexual transmission also occurs, and substance abuse is often a factor. Health and service practitioners need to develop sensitivity to the needs of HIV-infected elderly people and their families. Prevention efforts and education should be incorporated as part of their initial assessment. Issues of treatment regimens, adherence, confidentiality, social support, and nondiscrimination are critical concerns when serving this population.

Marino, S. (1991) Selected Problems in Counselling the Elderly. In Holosko, M. and M.D. Feit (eds.)Social Work Practice with the Elderly, Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press, pp.47-74.

                This chapter outlines four major problems which social worker encounter in counseling the elderly.  These are: attitudes and counter transference in the counseling relationships: the dependence/independence conflict: dealing with issue of loss: and intergenerational conflicts.  A discussion of each problem is followed by practice suggestion and a case example.

Menninger, J.A. (2002). Assessment and treatment of alcoholism and substance-related disorders in the elderly. Bulletin-of-the-Menninger-Clinic, 66(2) 166-183.

                Substance abuse disorders remain an overlooked, untreated, and dangerous presence within the elderly population. With individuals aged 65 and older composing the fastest growing segment of the population, it is a serious issue to consider that 16% of them have alcohol use disorders. This phenomena, defined as geriatric alcoholism by the author, is carefully considered in relation to various other factors. For instance, the consequences of acute and chronic alcoholism as they apply to the elderly person, the obvious issues of assessing the issue of alcoholism properly in this population, the importance of screening tools to do such assessments, strategies for treatment of alcohol withdrawal in the elderly including brief interventions, and consideration of nonalcohol drug abuse in the elderly are discussed.

Milewski-Hertlein, K.  (2001).  The use of a socially constructed genogram in clinical practice.  American Journal of Family Therapy, 29, 1, 23-38.

                Discusses the rationale for a socially constructed genogram, allowing for multiple definitions of family to be represented. It describes the role of the problem system and the utility of this genogram in these situations. It describes the set-up of a socially constructed genogram and provides clinical examples. The socially constructed genogram meets the task of the standard genogram in the following areas: It can be useful for engaging the problem-system in therapy. It can arrange for key experiences in the client's relationships and behaviors. It provides the clinician a way of understanding what relationships have impact on the client and brings patterns that are evident in social relationships to the forefront. Once these relationships and patterns are disclosed, issues can be reframed and detoxified, enabling them to correct the patterns. It helps clients to identify support systems that they were not aware was there and this can facilitate feeling better. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Mills, T.L., & Henretta, J.C. (2001). Racial, ethnic, and sociodemographic differences in the level of psychosocial distress. Research on Aging,23(3): 131-152.

                Explores reasons for differences in the level of depressive symptoms between older African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Whites. Ss were 6,438 respondents (70 yrs old and older) who completed a self-report questionnaire in Wave I of the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old survey, administered during 1993-94. The authors studied depression, sociodemographic factors, functional ability and physical health, and cognitive status. They also researched proximity to living children, marital status, ethnicity, acculturation, and geographic region. Results indicate that language acculturation, the number of years of education, and the number of years of US residency are significant factors that help to explain differences in self-reported levels of depressive symptoms among this older population. In general, those who are men, are married, have more education, and are in better health have lower levels of depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Min, J.  (2005).  Cultural competency: A key to effective future social work with racially and ethnically diverse eldersFamilies in Society, 86, 3, 347-358.

                With 2 dominant demographic imperatives of the aging population & increasing racial/ethnic diversity of the older population, current & future generations of racially & ethnically diverse elders are expected to experience complex & diverse sets of service needs. More than ever, the social work profession needs a strategic approach to working with current & future generations of diverse elders. The author presents information that allows a better understanding of future issues & problems facing racial/ethnic minority elders & discusses how social work can effectively & successfully address these future needs. Five specific recommendations are proposed: (a) reconceptualize race/ethnicity & diversity in social work practice, (b) identify & develop a conceptual framework for social work with racially & ethnically diverse elders, (c) consider a multidisciplinary community-oriented & neighborhood-based approach, (d) advance culturally competent gerontological social work with diverse elders, & (e) strengthen gerontological social work education with an emphasis on cultural competence.

Moon, A.  (2000).  Perceptions of elder abuse among various cultural groups: Similarities and differences.  Generations, 24, 2, 75-80.

                13 scenarios were used in interviews to measure and compare perceptions of elder abuse and help-seeking behaviors of 30 African-American, 30 Caucasian-American, and 30 Korean-American elderly women (aged 60-75 yrs). Significant group differences existed in perceptions of elder abuse with regard to 6 scenarios, and Korean-American women were substantially less likely to perceive a given situation as abusive than the other groups. The groups also showed significant differences in their indications of the likelihood of their use of formal and informal sources of help in the case of elder abuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Murdock, V.  (2005)Guided by ethics: Religion and spirituality in gerontological social work practice.  Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 45, 1-2, 131-154.

            This random national survey anonymously explored 299 gerontological social workers' attitudes about spirituality & the use of spiritual interventions in practice. Respondents support the inclusion of religion & spirituality in education & practice as a diversity component, as part of holistic assessment, & as a fundamental aspect of human life. Nearly 70% of respondents report little or no preparation on spiritual issues during their schooling & only 24.5% report satisfaction with their educational preparation on this topic. While respondents' personal spirituality correlates positively & weakly with the use of spiritual interventions, it is ethical attitudes toward spiritual interventions that predict the use of spiritual interventions by gerontological social workers.

Raue, P.J. (Ed), Alexopoulus, G.S., Bruce, M.L., Klimstra, S., Mulsant, B.H., and Gallo, J.J.  (2001). The systematic assessment of depressed elderly primary care patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16(6), 560-569.

                Describes considerations concerning the assessment selection process for primary care studies of elderly depressed patients, using the Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly: Collaborative Trial study as an example. The authors discuss the relevance of each of these domains to primary care elderly and provide examples of appropriate strategies and measures that balance the needs of both clinical detail and efficiency. Topics discussed are the assessment of depression, the assessment of suicidality and hopelessness, and beyond depression and suicidality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Scogin, F., Welsh, D., Hanson, A., Stump, J., & Coates, A.  (2005).  Evidence-based psychotherapies for depression in older adults.  Clinical Psychology: Science and Pracitce, 12, 3, 222-237.

                We conducted an evidence-based review of psychological treatments for geriatric depression using coding criteria, and we identified six treatments to be beneficial: behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and reminiscence therapy. Other interventions were found to be promising but were lacking replication. These findings suggest that (a) there are several treatment choices for consumers and practitioners across a relatively broad range of theoretical orientations and modalities, (b) there needs to be a recognition of the viability of psychological treatments for depressed elders by other disciplines, and (c) there is an opportunity to provide training in evidence-based treatments for present and future providers to the growing number of older adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Stanley, M. A. & Averill, P. M. (1999). Strategies for treating generalized anxiety in the elderly. In Duffy, M. (ed.) Handbook of Counseling and Psychotherapy with Older Adults. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc., pp 487-510.

                This chapter begins with a brief description of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in late life. GAD is shown to be a chronic and pervasive syndrome with high prevalence rates among older adults. The authors then provide an overview of the relevant psychosocial treatment literature, the majority of which focuses on cognitive-behavioral approaches. Several relevant issues of service utilization are reviewed, and a discussion of therapeutic techniques from an ongoing clinical trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for older adults with GAD is presented. Finally, potential psychosocial alternatives or adjuncts to CBT for GAD in late life are mentioned briefly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Stewart, D. & Oslin, D.W. (2001). Recognition and treatment of late-life addictions in medical settings. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, 7, 145-158.

                Addictive disorders among the elderly have emerged as a growing public health concern. As the proportion of the elderly population increases, more and more older adults will either develop addictions as a dysfunctional means of coping with the psychosocial consequences of aging, or will carry their long-standing addictive behaviors with them into later life. Among the most common of these addictions are smoking, excess consumption of alcohol, and gambling. This article briefly reviews these three addictive disorders and examines assessment and treatment options. The current cohort of older adults tends not to seek help for addiction problems in specialty mental health or substance abuse treatment. To improve rates of cessation and abstinence, assessment and intervention should be delivered in general medical settings such as primary care. With the addition of a behavioral health specialist, primary care has the potential to offer improved interventions in a cost-effective and time-efficient manner. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Straka, S. & Montminy, L.  (2006)Responding to the needs of older women experiencing domestic abuse.  Violence Against Women, 12, 3, 251-267.

            Older women experiencing domestic violence are an invisible group who fall into the gap between two forms of family violence: elder abuse & domestic violence. This article reviews the literature in both fields, describing each paradigm, how it explains & responds to its specific form of violence, & why neither has been able to provide an adequate response to domestic violence against older women. A collaborative response is needed, accounting for both the age & gender dimensions of the problem.

Wallace, G.  (2001).  Grandparent caregivers: Emerging issues in elder law and social work practice.  Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 34, 3, 127-136.

                There has been dramatic increases in grandparents raising and helping to raise their grandchildren over the last years. A few of the most common explanations offered include: drug abuse of parents, teen pregnancy, divorce, the rapid increase in single parent households, mental and physical illnesses, AIDS, crime, child abuse and neglect, and incarceration of the parents. Grandparent caregivers are the backbone of many families in distress, keeping families intact which would otherwise fall apart, but they also pay a price--taking care of children at a median age of 57 can be stressful, especially since many of the children have severe developmental, emotional or other problems. Caregiving grandparents need a great deal of assistance in order to maintain their fragile families. Much of this assistance will have to be offered in a holistic way in which professionals of various disciplines collaborate to empower multigenerational families to overcome the obstacles before them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Williams, E. & Donnelly, J.  (2002).  Older Americans and AIDS: Some guidelines for prevention.  Social Work, 47, 105-113.

                Social workers provide senior citizens with varied services in diverse settings and are in a position to assume leadership in slowing the spread of AIDS among this age group. Unfortunately older people often do not receive the knowledge needed to protect themselves against infection. Historically, older Americans have been largely ignored by HIV/AIDS prevention programs. The major risk behaviors among senior citizens include sexual activity without using condoms, alcohol and drug use, blood transfusions received before 1985, and misdiagnosed opportunistic illness such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, respiratory disease, and sexually transmitted diseases. The article discusses guidelines that can help social workers provide prevention education to older Americans. Social work's primary prevention AIDS education efforts can help older adults safely live out the rest of their lives secure in the understanding that they possess the knowledge to protect themselves from HIV/AIDS infection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

SW 503  Foundations of Social Work Practice II

Bonhote, K., Romano-Egan, J. & Cornwell, C. (1999). Altruism and creative expression in long-term older adult psychotherapy group. Issues in Mental Health Nursing 20, 603-617.

                This article describes the use of altruism and creative expression in an older adult psychotherapy group. These interventions, for which theoretic rationale and clinical examples are provided, are designed to decrease feelings of powerlessness that accompany life changes; to facilitate insight into feelings, coping, and preventative strategies for adaptation to change and loss; and to combat stereotypes, false beliefs, and myths imposed by a youth-oriented society. An integrated therapeutic model, combining psychodynamic, supportive, and cognitive/behavioral approaches, was used in the design of this group intervention for older adults. The authors, using rich clinical examples coupled with discussion of related theoretic background, provide the psychotherapist with an interesting perspective on this unique use of group psychotherapy with older adults. Such groups can provide a context within which to offer these patients the hope of relatedness, the opportunity to gain independence, and a heightened sense of integrity and possibility in one's later years. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Cummings, S. M. , Long, J. K., Person-Hazan (1998). The efficacy of a group treatment model in helping spouses meet the emotional and practical challenges of early stage caregiving. Clinical Gerontologist 20(1), 29-44.

                In this article, a model outlining the emotional and practical challenges of early stage Alzheimer's caregiving is described and the results of a pilot study regarding the effectiveness of a psychoeducational support group for early stage caregivers are presented. Participants of the 8-wk support group were 13 caregivers (aged 43-83 yrs) of ill spouses (aged 54-83 yrs). Measures included the Preparedness for Caregiving Scale, the Caregiving Competence Scale, the Perceived Stress scale, and the Coping Responses Index from the Health and Daily Living Form. Posttest measures indicate a significant increase in participants' preparedness for the caregiving role, competence, and use of positive coping strategies, and also a decrease in their levels of perceived strain. These results suggest that interventions with family members during the early phase of their caregiving career can promote their wellness and enhance their ability to face both current and future challenges. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Fitzgerald, M. H., Mullavey-O’Byrne & Clemson, L. (2001). Families and nursing home placements: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology 16, 333-351.

                Notes that how health care workers and families approach decisions about nursing home placements is affected by beliefs and assumptions about the role of family members in the care of family members and the decision making process. This paper explores the responses of 20 people (aged 20-66 yrs) from 4 cultural groups living in Australia (Anglo-Celtic Australian, Chinese, Greek, Lebanese) to a critical incident scenario about a family faced with such a decision. The responses to this scenario were similar across the 4 cultural groups. All saw making such a decision as difficult, but the reasons for the difficulty suggest some cross-cultural distinctions. Some groups viewed care of a family member more in terms of a social and role obligation while others addressed it as a personal responsibility. To not care for elderly parents in the home was accompanied by a sense of guilt among some respondents and a sense of public social shame among others. Ambivalence about nursing homes and placing a family member in a nursing home, culture change and cross-generational differences, and roles and role support were other important themes. Findings suggest a need to examine more closely the beliefs and assumptions associated with nursing home placements. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Laditka, J. N & Laditka, S. B. (2001). Adult children helping older parents: Variations in likelihood and hours by gender, race, and family role. Research on Aging 23 (4), 429-456.

                Examined factors associated with the likelihood that adult children will help older parents in typical American families, using data from the 1993 Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Effects were examined for gender, child family role (couple status), and race (Black, White). Help was assessed as hours devoted to health, personal care or other needs. Results for 1,323 child-parent pairs show that daughters and sons not in couples were more likely to help than those in couples, and to give substantially more hours. In couples, daughters were less likely to help than sons, but they helped for considerably more hours. Black daughters helped at least as commonly as White daughters, and did so for substantially more hours than either White daughters or sons of either race. Results suggest that Black sons may help less commonly than White sons. Black sons who helped, however, did so for at least as many hours as White sons. Findings suggest that changes in the Black American family have not produced the notable intergenerational relations breakdown anticipated by some researchers. Results also illuminate the important role of sons in family help and suggest that changing marriage patterns may not reduce help to older parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Molinari V. (1999). Using reminiscence and life review as natural therapeutic strategies in group therapy. In Duffy, M. (ed.) Handbook of Counseling and Psychotherapy with Older Adults. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc., pp.154-

                (from the chapter) R. Butler (1963) defined life review as a universal process triggered by the realization of approaching death and characterized by the progressive return to consciousness of past experiences, particularly unresolved conflicts. This chapter discusses life review within the general literature on reminiscence. The author discusses life review's initial Eriksonian and Jungian theoretical underpinnings and the varied and overlapping perspectives evolving from current dominant clinical orientations. This is followed by a presentation of neglected advances in psychodynamic thought that nestles the concept in a broader and more viable theoretical framework. The author reflects on the varied forms that reminiscence interventions have taken and which of these can be construed as therapy; posits life review to be the prime mode of reminiscence therapy; and outlines those aspects of life review therapy as a clinical technique that have been supported across varied settings by the empirical and qualitative literature. A model life review therapy program is also proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Richman, J. (1999). Psychotherapy with the suicidal elderly: A family-oriented approach.  In Duffy, M. (ed.) Handbook of Counseling and Psychotherapy with Older Adults. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc., pp. 650-661.

                (from the chapter) In this chapter, the approaches to the understanding and psychotherapeutic treatment of elders in suicidal despair are presented, largely through the use of case studies. The basic processes of assessment, treatment, and education are discussed. The first case illustrates the need for flexibility in the beginning therapist and an openness to information and contact with a suicidal person and his/her family. The later examples describe the most frequent situations and challenges, beginning with assessment and crisis intervention, and continuing with treatment procedures. The methods emphasize but are not limited to family therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Rosowsky, E. (1999). Couple therapy with long-married older adults.. In Duffy, M. (ed.) Handbook of Counseling and Psychotherapy with Older Adults. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc., pp. 242-266.

                (from the chapter) Addresses issues in couple therapy with older adults from a developmental perspective. These issues include: developmental tasks at middle age and at old age; tasks for couples at mid-life; major functions of marriage in old age; routes to couple therapy for older adults; presenting problems of the older couple; and core concepts for couple therapy with older adults. Case examples are offered to illustrate key themes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Ruckdeschel, H. (2000). Group psychotherapy in the nursing home. In Molinari, V. (Ed.) Professional Psychology in Long Term Care. New York: Hatherleigh Press, pp. 112-131.

                (from the chapter) Mental health clinicians increasingly provide much needed psychological services to individuals residing in nursing homes. Conducting group psychotherapy in the nursing home setting enables the clinician to treat a greater number of individuals in need of psychological services using fewer resources. Group therapy is also well suited to the nursing home population because it addresses the social isolation commonly experienced by the residents. This chapter provides an overview of the process and issues involved in conducting group therapy in a nursing home setting. Mental health issues of particular relevance to the elderly nursing home population are identified, including adjustment to institutional life, losses, coping with illness and death, and interpersonal conflicts. Effective treatment in the group setting is enhanced by the cohesiveness that is achieved in the group. Techniques for developing cohesion in the group are discussed. Three types of groups (psychoeducational, support, and psychotherapy groups) are discussed that can address the mental health needs of nursing home residents. The systemic and patient-related challenges inherent in conducting groups in the nursing home setting are examined and potential solutions are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Sandberg, J. G. & Platt, J. J. (2001). Family therapy and issues in aging. In MacFarlane, M. M. (Ed). Family therapy and mental health: Innovations in theory and practice. Binghamton, NY, US: Haworth Clinical Practice Press, pp. 361-388

                (from the chapter) Attempts to present an accurate view of potential clinical needs of older adults and their families as well as the need for marriage and family therapies (MFTs) to more adequately prepare to serve this population. In order for MFTs to be more adequately prepared for this work, we must accomplish two major goals. First, basic family therapy models must be theoretically and practically expanded to fit the needs of older families. Second, these models must then be tested for their effectiveness. This research, conducted in real-life clinics, with typical, community-dwelling older adults and families, will provide valuable information as to what works and what does not. Only then will we be clinically and empirically prepared to work with this growing population. Because aging occurs in a family context, and because aging has the potential to trigger so many symptoms in even the most functional families, MFTs have the opportunity and responsibility to provide competent and caring family-based treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Strom R. D. & Strom S. K. (2000). Meeting the challenge of raising grandchildren. International Journal of Aging and Human Development 51 (3), 183-198.

                Discusses the challenges facing grandparents who are raising grandchildren. Professionals can help these grandparents succeed by helping them recognize necessary adjustments, encouraging goal-setting consistent with circumstances, and improving support-group functioning. Successful grandparents raising grandchildren revise personal goals to fit circumstances, learn how growing up has changed, cooperate with parents sharing childcare responsibility, monitor children's social and academic progress, become aware of rights and available social services, and arrange periodic relief from responsibilities. Grandparent support groups should (1) encourage optimistic attitudes and constructive behavior; (2) establish expectations for individual growth; (3) acquire and practice group process skills; (4) make education the basis for increased success; and (5) assess members' learning needs and evaluate progress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Strozier, A., McGrew, L., Krisman, K., & Smith, A.  (2005)Kinship Care Connection: A school-based intervention for kinship caregivers and the children in their care.  Children and Youth Services Review, 27, 9, 1011-1029.

            Whereas child welfare has championed efforts in kinship care practice, policy, & research, there is a growing need for other systems of care, specifically the school system, to improve the ways in which kinship care families are supported. This study highlights outcomes from the Kinship Care Connection (KCC), an innovative school-based intervention designed to increase children's self-esteem & to mediate kin caregiver burden. Current issues regarding the status of kinship caregiving families involved in the school system are highlighted using quantitative data & case studies based on: (1) 34 caregivers participating in support groups & case management services, including counseling, advocacy, & resource procurement, & (2) 63 children participating in tutoring, mentoring & counseling, advocacy, & resource procurement. Two case studies describing the familial experience in KCC will detail the process evaluation related to this intergenerational intervention. Results indicate increased self-esteem in children & mediated kin caregiver burden for families participating in the KCC. Implications for social work practice include suggestions for ways social workers & the school system can better support kinship caregiving families.

Tisher, M. & Dean, S. (2000). Family Therapy with the Elderly. A. New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy 21 (2), 94-101.

                Outlines health and lifestyle challenges to elderly persons and associated changes in their family systems. Flexibility, related to attachment patterns, is considered central to healthy adaptation. Family therapy approaches and relevant systemic and cultural factors influencing psychotherapy with the elderly are discussed. Key family therapy concepts and strategies (genograms, transmission of family histories, and circular patterns of interaction) are reviewed and exemplified. Four types of family therapy presentations are elucidated by composite case examples. The elderly person can be the identified patient, or another family member can seek help for him/herself in relation to the elderly person. Another family member can be the identified patient without direct reference to the elderly person. Finally, the wider health care system involved with the elderly person and family can be the focus of therapy. Family therapy offers important conceptual and strategic advantages with the elderly and their family systems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

SW 504  Foundations of Social Work Practice III

Balaswamy, S. & Dabelko, H.  (2002).  Using a stakeholder participatory model in a community-wide service needs assessment of elderly residents: A case study.  Journal of Community Practice, 10, 1, 55-70.

                This paper discusses a collaborative approach to a community-wide needs assessment in a county in Ohio. A neighborhood service provider for elderly residents in the community initiated the research project. To promote ownership in the evaluation process and to conserve resources, the evaluators used a stakeholder participatory approach. This effort not only resulted in increased cooperation among all parties involved (stakeholders, evaluators, community agencies), but culminated in the acceptance and utilization of controversial findings. (Journal abstract.)

Johnson, T. F. (1995). Ethics and elder mistreatment: Uniting protocol with practice. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect 7(2-3), 1-9.

                The meaning of ethics in elder mistreatment is examined.  A method is proposed for developing ethical practice at the multidisciplinary level.

Mui, A. C. & Domanski, M. D. (1999). A community needs assessment among Asian American elders. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology 14, 77-90.

                Despite a significant increase in the size of the Asian American elderly population, little is known about their social service needs and the level of service provided to them. This study used a survey methodology to examine 18 Asian American senior programs in the New York City metropolitan area. Results show that Asian elderly clients were primarily women and "old-old," and that many of them were on SSI. Services provided were primarily tangible and facilitative, rather than clinical. Services needed but not provided were emergency psychiatric care, home attendants, home-delivered meals, legal services, medical services, and protective services. Findings provide useful information for further research and program planning for Asian American elders in urban settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Ritchie, C., Wieland, D., Tully, C., Rowe, J., Sims, R., and Bodner, E. (2002). Coordination and advocacy for rural elders (CARE): A model of rural case management with veterans. Gerontologist, 42, 399-405.

                Describes a pilot initiative sponsored by the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to improve the health and community tenure of frail older veterans living in rural counties 50-100 miles from 2 VHA medical centers. Veterans aged 75 and older who scored at risk of repeated hospital admission on the PRA-Plus telephone questionnaire were targeted and visited by evaluators who administered a comprehensive health questionnaire prior to being assessed at home by the Coordination and Advocacy for Rural Elders (CARE) program clinical teams. Guided by current state-of-the-art practices, the nurse-social worker teams performed inhome standardized assessments using the MDS-HC, developed patient-specific care plans, and mobilized family, community, and VHA resources to implement plans. On average, 8 problems were identified for each patient, most commonly falls risk, social needs, pain, and needs related to disability. As a result of initial assessment, two thirds of CARE Ss received referral/linkage to formal services, more than half to medical providers. Through CARE, the VHA is learning more about the unmet needs of older rural veterans. Further development and evaluation should guide the VHA toward providing efficient, effective community-based services to all frail older veterans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Wagner, M.L. (2000). The organizational ombudsman as change agent. Negotiation Journal, 16, 99-114.

                Asserts that though the organizational ombudsman's role may sometimes be regarded as only a facilitator of individual problem solving, in fact the ombudsperson is ideally situated within the organization to make recommendations for systemic change, based on patterns of complaint brought to the office. Indeed, the ombuds is obligated to take steps to prevent future recurrence of a problem, as well as to resolve the problem at hand. Furthermore, because of the ombuds' broad understanding of the organizational culture and the needs of its leaders and other stakeholders, the ombuds office--in addition to being a vital component of the organization's conflict management system--may also participate in designing, evaluating, and improving the entire dispute resolution system for the organization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

SW 506 Social Work Research

Ames, N. & Diepstra, S.  (2006).  Using intergenerational oral history service-learning projects to teach human behavior concepts:  A qualitative analysis.  Educational Gerontology, 32, 9, 721-735.

                An intergenerational oral history project paired 63 students enrolled in human behavior in the social environment (HBSC) courses in a bachelor of social work (BSW) programs with older adults. The goal of the project was to provide contextual application of HBSE theories and concepts by engaging students in semester-long intentional interaction with older adults. Qualitative evaluation of the oral history project found that students reported multiple benefits from participation. The authors attribute the project's positive outcomes to its service-learning nature as well as the unique and applied way in which it allowed students to learn mandated course content.

Atkinson, R. M., Ryan, S. C. & Turner, J. A. (2001). Variation among aging alcoholic patients in treatment. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 9 (3) 275-282.

                Compared demographic and clinical features of 2 groups of older patients with alcohol use disorders (205 and 124 Ss, all male military veterans aged 55-84 yrs) selected before and after major program changes took place at a clinic designed specifically to treat aging alcoholic patients. Program changes (admission criteria, case-finding practices, treatments offered), significantly altered case-mix and treatment adherence. Results demonstrate variability among older alcoholic patients as well as the impact of program policies and practices on patient profiles and treatment responses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Ball, K., Wadley, V., & Roenker, D.  (2003).  Obstacles to implementing research outcomes in community settings.  The Gerontologist, 43, 1, 19-28.

            In contrast to controlled laboratory- or clinic based research that can fail to capture the real-world behaviors of older adults, field research offers the best opportunity for ecological validity. However, the tradeoff inherent in field studies is the potential sacrifice of scientific rigor. Applied research presents a unique set of challenges that vary with context. This article discusses these challenges along with possible solutions. Examples are drawn from an ongoing, longitudinal Roybal Center study of driving competence that is being conducted in Department of Motor Vehicles field sites. The challenges faced at each stage of the project are discussed. Methodological issues include identifying field collaborators, approaching administrators with the research proposal, producing a battery that is manageable and acceptable while maintaining scientific merit, training indigenous personnel to administer this battery, introducing the research and consenting potential participants, and managing large data sets offsite. Additional issues include quality control, the importance of distinguishing between individuals who consent and those who decline participation, and the collection of follow-up data via telephone. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Burns, A., Lawlor, B. & Craig, S. (2002). Rating scales in old age psychiatry. British Journal of Psychiatry 180, 161-167.

                There is a variety of scales currently available for use in assessing all aspects of mental and physical health in older people which may be of relevance to the work of old age psychiatrists. This article is a summarization of some of the scales that may prove to be most useful in clinical and research practice and a source of guidelines for finding further information. The article concludes that many scales are available for practitioners, and the specific scale that would be most useful depends on the question that is being asked. One perfect, ideal scale that serves every purpose and situation does not exist.

Czaja, S. & Sharit, J.  (2003).  Practically relevant research: Capturing real world tasks, environments, and outcomesThe Gerontologist, 43, 1, 9-18.

                Development of strategies to optimize the functional performance of older adults requires understanding the behavior of older people doing tasks in real-world settings and capturing these interactions in research protocols. This is a major challenge as there is tension between capturing the contextual variables and constraints that operate in the real world and the scale of research that can be realistically conducted within controlled experimental settings. This article presents a research approach that can be used to help ensure the ecological validity of research protocols. The intent is to demonstrate how an ecologically valid approach affords greater insight into the performance of older adults in real world settings. The study uses techniques such as task analysis and simulation and examples from two research projects examining aging and the performance of real-world computer-based work tasks are used to demonstrate the application of this approach. Results show an ecologically valid research approach yields information about human performance that can be translated into solutions for real-world problems. Implications are that ecologically valid research protocols can give answers to real-world problems and advance theory regarding aging and functional performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Duke, J. (1997).  A national study of involuntary protective services to Adult Protective Services clients. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect 9 (1), 51-68.

                A questionnaire was sent to state administrators of Adult Protective Services Programs (APS) to learn about involuntary protective services provided by APS to vulnerable adults at risk of abuse, neglect, or exploitation. Data were obtained on criteria used to assess the need for involuntary services, types of services provided, sources of authority for involuntary intervention, the nature and extent of public concern about involuntary services, and the protection of the rights of incapacitated clients. Based on responses from 43 states, less than 10 percent of APS recipients receive services without their consent; and all states providing services involuntarily take steps to ensure the protection of rights. Available information from the study does not support the general belief that adults who self-neglect are more likely than other APS clients to have protective services imposed. (Journal abstract.)

Feldman, P. H., Nadash, P., Gursen, M.  (2001).  Improving communication between researchers and policy makers in long-term care: Or, researchers are from Mars; policy makers are from Venus.  The Gerontologist, 41, 3, 312-321.

                The writers report that in their work with the Home Care Research Initiative, they experimented with a number of dissemination tactics and came to realize the difficulties in tailoring information for different policy audiences. They relate their exploration of the problem of dissemination through discussions they held with state long-term care (LTC) policymakers about their research information needs and through their examination of the activities of groups that communicate LTC data. They state that they supplemented this "environmental scan" with a convention of LTC researchers and policy makers to explore their findings. They indicate that their analysis has revealed a mismatch between the activities researchers and brokers engage in and the perceived needs of LTC policymakers. They present their recommendations for synthesizing, translating, and disseminating complex and important policy-relevant research findings and for bridging the gap between researchers and policymakers.

Gaugler, J. E., Kane, R. L., Kane, R. A., Clay, T., & Newcomer, R.  (2002).  Family care for older adults with disabilities: Toward more targeted and interpretable research.  International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 54, 3, 205-231.

                Family care of the elderly is key to the long-term care system, and its importance has led to an abundance of research over the past two decades. Several methodological and substantive issues, if addressed, could create even more targeted and interpretable research. The present review critically examines methodological topics (i.e., definitions of family caregiving, measurement of caregiving inputs) and conceptual issues (i.e., family involvement in long-term residential settings, and the care receiver's perspective on care) that have received insufficient attention in the caregiving literature. Throughout this review recommendations are offered to improve these areas and advance the state of the art. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Glasser, M., Prohaska, T., & Gravdal, J.  (2001).  Elderly patients and their accompanying caregivers on medical visits.  Research on Aging, 23, 3, 326-348.

                Examined how elderly patients and caregivers view the roles and assistance of caregivers in the health care decisions and medical encounters of older patients. 185 patients (aged 60 yrs and older) and their accompanying caregivers (e.g., family, friends, neighbors) at 4 outpatient clinics were surveyed on patient-caregiver interactions about health-related issues; frequency and importance of caregiver accompaniment on medical visits; reasons for caregiver accompaniment; health characteristics of patients and caregivers, including, depression symptoms; and demographic information. Compared with patients not accompanied, patients accompanied on medical visits were more likely to be women, have lower incomes, and experience worse physical and mental health status. Findings provide evidence of the "advocate" and supportive roles played by informal caregivers of elderly patients. The high level of depression symptoms is an issue for physicians. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Kuhn, D. R., & Mendes de Leon, C. F.  (2001).  Evaluating an educational intervention with relatives of persons in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease.  Research on Social Work Practice, 11, 5, 531-548.

                The objective of this article was to describe the results of an educational intervention for family caregivers of persons in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. A total of 58 family caregivers (aged 24-90 yrs) participated in this intervention, which consisted of five weekly educational sessions about the disease and various aspects of caregiving. Measures of knowledge about Alzheimer's disease, reactions to patients' impairments, and levels of depression at pretest, posttest, and follow-up at 9 months posttest were analyzed. The results showed that modest benefits were derived by participants at the three points in time, with knowledge about the disease improving significantly, reactions to patients' impairments improving slightly, and level of depression increasing slightly. This preliminary study reveals that the educational intervention has merit for family caregivers coping with the early stages of Alzheimer's disease, but new or different outcome measures could possibly better assess its impact. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Marson, D.  (2002).  Competency assessment and research in an aging societyGenerations, 26, 1, 99-106. 

                Part of a special issue on mental health and mental illness in later life. Competency has emerged as a distinct field of legal, clinical, and behavioral research since the late 1970s. As society ages, clinical assessments of decisional abilities and higher-order functional capacities in the elderly have become increasingly important. Moreover, competency assessment practices and research regarding the elderly will continue to gain prominence in the first decade of the 21st century. A number of perceptions and predictions about future practice trends and directions for research are discussed.

Morano, C., & Bravo, M.  (2002).  A psychoducation model for Hispanic Alzheimer’s disease caregivers.  The Gerontologist, 42, 1, 122-126.

                A purposive sample of Hispanic caregivers participated in a 5-day, 20-hr psychoeducational program to increase the caregivers' understanding and acceptance of Alzheimer's disease (AD), repertoire of coping skills, knowledge of resources, and expression of concerns and emotions of caregiving. Pre- and posttests were administered to determine if participation in the program improved caregivers' knowledge of the progression and management of AD, as well as knowledge of appropriate community-based services. Caregivers demonstrated a significant improvement on the Caregiver Knowledge Survey, an increased awareness of community-based services, increased willingness to attend support groups, and overall satisfaction with the program. Culturally sensitive intervention research with minority AD caregivers provides the opportunity to increase understanding and improve coping skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Motta, M., Bennati, E., Ferlito, L., Malaguarnera, M., & Motta, L.  (2005)Successful aging in centenarians: Myths and reality.  Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 40, 3, 241-251.

            The term "successful aging" appeared in the first issue of "The Gerontologist" in 1961. During the successive years, this expression has changed its meaning. Nowadays, successful aging means "absence of diseases and disabilities, maintenance of high levels of physical and cognitive abilities, preservation of the social and productive activities". It has become a common opinion that the centenarians may represent the prototypes of the successful aging. This motivated our work to study the clinical, psychical, and functional aspects in a centenarian group, verifying the real autonomy, instrumental capacities, and working abilities. Our study pool consisted of 602 centenarians, who were also subjects of then epidemiological studies of the Italian Multicenter Studies on Centenarians (IMUSCE). All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnestic evaluation, cognitive-functional tests by means of the mini mental state examination (MMSE), the independence index in activities of daily living (ADL) the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scale. The centenarians were classified in three groups, according to the criteria elaborated previously by us, based on their psychophysical status and autonomy, as follows. Group A: centenarians in good health status; Group B: centenarians in an intermediate health status. Group C: centenarians in bad health status. Group A represented 20.0% of the total pool, Group B amounted to 33.4%, and the Group C was 46.6%. The centenarians of Group A presented normal ADL values, and 47.9% of them were autosufficient in all functions; 5.7% of them were independent in all IADL items. These data confirm that the centenarians of Group A are free of invalidating chronic diseases, are autonomous, maintain good physical and cognitive capacities, however, have not maintained any social or productive activities. Therefore, they cannot be considered as prototypes of successful aging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Mui, A. D., Burnette, D. & Chen, L. M. (2001). Cross-cultural assessment of geriatric depression: A review of the CES_D and GDS. Journal of Mental Health and Aging 7 (1), 137-164.

                This article reviews published studies on the utility and psychometric properties of the two most widely used screening instruments for depressive symptomatology among older populations, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Studies on the CES-D confirm its usefulness for measuring depression in diverse groups of older adults, however, further research examining criterion validity among different cultural groups is needed. Sociocultural and health-related factors appeared to influence differential patterns of item endorsement and factor structures of the CES-D in these studies. The composition and hierarchy of factors varied: the well-being factor was consistently problematic in non-Western cultures, two rather than four factors were a better fit for data on Hispanic elders, the interpersonal problem factor was most salient for African Americans, and depressed affect and somatic factors were conflated for American Indians. Research on the psychometric properties of the GDS suggests that without alterations it may not be sufficiently valid for use in other cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Mungas, D., Reed, B. R., Marshal, S. C. & Gonzalez, H. M. (2000). Development of psychometrically matched English and Spanish language neuropsychological tests for older persons. Neuropsychology 14(2), 209-223.

                Item response theory (IRT) methods were used to develop a neuropsychological test battery with matched English and Spanish language forms. Candidate items for 12 scales measuring core neuropsychological abilities were generated and administered to 200 community-dwelling elderly participants tested in Spanish and 208 tested in English. IRT methods were used to eliminate linguistically biased items and refine scales to assess broad ability ranges. Reasonably good psychometric matching of scales was achieved within and across English and Spanish language forms. All scales were sensitive to cognitive impairment as measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), with highly similar relationships between scale scores and MMSE across English and Spanish groups. The outcome supports the use of IRT methods in cross-cultural and multilingual test development and indicates that this strategy has potential for future neuropsychological test development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Orel, N., Wright, J., Wagner, J.  (2004).  Scarcity of HIV/AIDS risk-reduction materials targeting the needs of older adults among state departments of public health.  The Gerontologist, 44, 5, 693-696.

                This study investigated the availability of printed human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education/prevention materials from state departments of public health within the US, which specifically targeted the older adult population. Information on HIV/AIDS from public health departments in each of the 50 states was solicited, obtained, & analyzed for applicability to an older adult population. Although all 50 states responded to our request for publications, only 15 states (30%) provided publications that were specifically intended for an older adult audience. The title, date of publication, & publisher of publications that were considered "specific to older adults" are provided. These findings suggest that there is a general lack of HIV/AIDS prevention literature specifically tailored for older adults available through state departments of public health.

Peak, T., & Sinclair, S.  (2002).  Using customer satisfaction surveys to improve quality of care in mursing homesHealth and Social Work, 27, 75-79.

                Discusses issues in using customer satisfaction surveys to measure the quality of care in nursing homes, using the case study of Sunshine Terrace, a nonprofit, skilled, subacute extended care facility. The use of annual satisfaction measures with 3 stakeholder groups--nursing home residents, family members, and staff--is discussed. In the case example, the most commonly raised concerns by residents and family members were the quality of food, insufficient staffing, and the complaint process itself. These issues were addressed with increased emphasis on training and education about the delivery of resident-centered care and procedures for registering a complaint. Staff surveys expressed concerns about feeling excluded from workplace decision making and lack of respect from supervisors and coworkers. The plans of action to address these concerns re-emphasized the importance of communication skills and positive feedback and began to include staff in care conferences and on Quality Improvement Action Teams. The role of nursing home social workers in the survey process and the implementation of plans of action based on survey results are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Napoles-Springer, A. M. & Stewart, A. L. (2001). Use of health-related quality of life measures in older and ethnically diverse U.S. populations. Journal of Mental Health and Aging 7(1), 173-179.

                Comments on the article by A. L. Stewart and A. Napoles-Springer (see record 2000-05848-009) which discusses the nature of diversity, the importance of ensuring the adequacy of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures in minority groups, methods for assessing comparability of HRQOL measures across groups, and methodological and analytical challenges. The author focuses on the use of HRQOL in clinical research in diverse populations. Common research designs that incorporate measures of HRQOL are reviewed, and tests for the equivalence of measures, using clinical data, are suggested. Finally, the author examines assumptions necessary to achieve universality of a measure and explores whether this is attainable by examining research on racial and gender differences in treatment effectiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Prigerson, H.G., Desai, R.A., & Rosencheck, R.A.  (2001). Older adult patients with both psychiatric and substance abuse disorders: Prevalence and health service use. Psychiatric Quarterly, 72(1), 1-18.

                The prevalence and service use among older adults with dual diagnosis of psychiatric and substance abuse disorders was examined in a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 91,752 VA mental health program inpatients and outpatients. Rates of dual diagnosis declined significantly as age of the Ss increased (26% of patients aged < 65 yrs; 6.9% of patients aged />65 yrs). Dually diagnosed older adult patients had longer inpatient stays for substance abuse and more outpatient substance abuse visits than non-dually diagnosed elderly patients, and more outpatient general psychiatric visits than all the contrast groups. Dual diagnosis appears less common among older compared to younger patients, although their heavy use of certain (particularly outpatient psychiatric) services suggests that should more dually diagnosed patients survive to old age, their consumption of some forms of mental health care is likely to be high. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Waldrop, D. P. & Weber, J. A.  (2001).  From grandparent to caregiver: The stress and satisfaction of raising grandchildren.  Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 82, 5, 461-472.

                The circumstances faced by grandparents who become caregivers for their grandchildren are complicated and stressful. In-depth interviews were conducted with 54 grandparent caregivers (37 grandmothers and 17 grandfathers). Analysis of qualitative data involved the use of QSR NUD*IST software for organizing and coding interview transcripts. Subsets of financial, family, and legal problems specific to grandparent caregiving were identified. Grandparent caregivers acquire problem-specific coping strategies, which include taking action, talking about feelings, religious faith, focus on the grandchild, outreach to others, and some "less desirable" means. Caregiver satisfaction was related to the joys of children, the tasks of child-rearing participating in grandchildren's activities, a new focus for life, and watching a child's accomplishments. This study identified the need for additional research about interventions for the stress and coping responses of grandparent caregivers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Wiglesworth, A., Mosqueda, L., Burnight, K., Younglove, T., & Jeske, D.  (2006).  Findings from an Elder Abuse Forensic Center.  The Gerontologist, 46, 2, 277-283.

                The first Elder Abuse Forensic Center (EAFC) in the United States was instituted in 2003. People from a variety of disciplines, including Adult Protective Services social workers, law enforcement, the district attorney's office, a medical response team, public guardian deputies, ombudsmen, mental health services, a victim advocate, and a domestic violence expert work cooperatively on cases of elder and dependent-adult mistreatment. Researchers conducted an assessment of the EAFC's impact on the efficiency and effectiveness of the collaboration. Design and Methods: Mixed quantitative and qualitative methods included statistical analysis of data from outcome surveys of EAFC collaborators and illustrative case studies developed from case files and structured interviews. Results: Mean survey scores evaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of the collaboration were significantly better than neutral responses. Case studies show efficient and effective case management through cooperation of the collaborating agencies. Survey results clearly support perceptions exemplified in case studies. Implications: An EAFC enhances the efficiency and effectiveness of those who address elder abuse in one community, which in turn leads to improved outcomes. Continued analysis to identify strengths, weaknesses, and cost effectiveness of the EAFC model is ongoing.

SW 514 Human Behavior and the Social Environment I

Bengtson, V.  (2001).  Beyond the nuclear family: The increasing importance of multigenerational bonds.  Journal of Marriage and the Family, 63, 1, 1-16.

                Discusses the importance of multigenerational family relationships in US society. Family structures and functions are increasingly diverse. Reasons that multigenerational family relations will become more important in the 21st century include: (1) demographic changes of aging populations; (2) the increasing importance of grandparents and other kin in fulfilling family functions; (3) the strength and resilience of intergenerational solidarity over time. Family multigenerational relations are increasingly diverse because of divorce and stepfamily relationship changes in family structure, the increased longevity of kin, and the diversity of intergenerational relationship types. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Block, C. E. (2000). Dyadic and gender differences in perceptions of the grandparent-grandchild relationship. International Journal of Aging and Human Development 51(2), 85-104.

                Compared the perceptions of grandparents and grandchildren on 4 relationship variables: 1) role conception, 2) amount of contact, 3) the assessed adequacy of contact, and 4) closeness of relationship. The sample consisted of 40 grandparent-grandchild pairs representing 4 relational dyads (grandmother-granddaughter, grandmother-grandson, grandfather-granddaughter, and grandfather-grandson). A series of ANOVAs was used to examine gender and relational differences in perceptions. No differences in grandparent role perception were found between grandmothers and grandfathers, between grandsons and granddaughters, or among the 4 relational dyads. With regard to amount of contact, grandfathers reported significantly more telephone visits and shopping with granddaughters than grandsons. Grandsons reported being more likely to attend social gatherings with grandfathers than grandmothers. Both grandparents and grandchildren indicated that the adequacy of contact with one another was less than they would wish. Lastly, grandparents and grandchildren reported a high degree of closeness; this perception did not differ by gender of grandparent, gender of grandchildren, or relational dyad. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Dilworth-Anderson, P., Williams, S. W. & Cooper, T. (1999). Family caregiving to elderly African Americans: Caregiver Types and Structures. Journal of Gerontology: Social Services 54B (4), S237-S241.

                Objectives. This study identified different types of caregivers who provide care to older African Americans, the types of caregiving structures created to provide care, and the factors that help predict caregiving structures.
Methods. A community sample of 330 caregivers caring for 202 elderly African Americans was used. Multinomial logistic regression predicted what type of caregiving structure was created by families to provide care to older relatives.
Results. Three types of caregivers were identified: 187 primary caregivers, who were connected to 79 secondary caregivers and 49 tertiary caregivers. Fifteen tertiary-only caregivers who were not connected to other caregivers were identified. Five caregiving structures were found: (i) primary, secondary, and tertiary, (ii) primary and secondary, (iii) primary and tertiary, (iv) primary only, and (v) tertiary-only. Characteristics of care recipients were predictive of caregiving structures.
Discussion. Different types of caregivers with distinct roles and responsibilities provided care within defined caregiving structures to older African American family members. Caregiving structures may be individualistic (only one caregiver) or collectivist (two or more caregivers). Caregiving structure is predicted by the care recipients' conditions and situations, but not those of the primary caregiver.

Harwood, J. (2001). Comparing grandchildren’s and grandparent’s stake in their relationship. International Journal of Aging and Human Development 53 (3), 195-210.

                Examines the intergenerational stake hypothesis in the grandparent-grandchild relationship, which posits that older generations will perceive more closeness in a relationship than younger generations. Ss were 135 college students (mean age 19.96 yrs) and their grandparents (aged 60-98 yrs), who were surveyed concerning various aspects of their relationship, including perception of how active the relationship is. Using an established typology of grandparent-grandchild relationship style, the author studied assessments of relationships as detached, passive, supportive, authoritative, and influential. The study finds that grandparents perceive their relationship with their grandchildren to be considerably closer than their grandchildren do. However, their grandchildren perceive the relationship to be more active than their grandparents do. It is found that the 2 parties often disagree as to the nature of their relationship on the typology. Details of these disagreements are examined, and implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Hequembourg, A. & Brallier, S.  (2005)Gendered stories of parental caregiving among siblings.  Journal of Aging Studies, 19, 1, 53-71.

            Using data from in-depth interviews with eight pairs of male & female siblings, we investigate the influence of gender on the division of responsibility among adult children who are providing care to their elderly parent & how parental caregiving provides an opportunity for the explicit (re)negotiation of gender dynamics across household boundaries. We explore the ways that "helper brothers" & "co-provider brothers" divide care with their sisters, & the impact of this division of care on the sisters' roles as coordinators of care & their future plans for their parents' care. "Specialized knowledge" also emerges as an important factor in the gendered division of care among the respondents. Finally, we examine the consequences of our findings with regards to gender relations & discuss the limitations of this exploratory study.

Karp, N. (1996). Legal problems of grandparents and other kinship caregivers. Generations (spring), 57-60.

                Part of a special issue on grandparenting at century's end. The writer discusses the legal problems facing grandparents and other kinship caregivers. Topics addressed include the legal authority to make caregiving decisions, financial support for kinship care, how unanticipated kinship care obligations can threaten the housing situations of caregivers, and options for permanent care. It is concluded that policymakers, legislators, and service providers should continue to concentrate on the requirements of kinship caregivers and to develop creative remedies to their legal problems.

Kelley, S. J., Yorker, B. C., Whitley, D. M. & Sipe, T. S. (2001).  A multimodal intervention for grandparents raising grandchildren: Results of an exploratory study. Child Welfare 80 (1), 27-50.

                This article describes the results of an exploratory study of a multimodal, home-based intervention designed to reduce psychological stress, improve physical and mental health, and strengthen the social support and resources of grandparents raising grandchildren. The six-month intervention included home visits by registered nurses, social workers, and legal assistants; the services of an attorney; and monthly support group meetings. The intervention resulted in improved mental health scores, decreased psychological distress scores, and increased social support scores. Participants (aged 39-78 yrs) also experienced improvement in the level of public benefits received and in their legal relationships with their grandchildren. Implications of these findings for practice are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Kwok, H.  (2006)The son also acts as major caregiver to elderly parents: a study of the sandwich generation in Hong Kong.  Current Sociology, 54, 2, 257-272.

            This article investigates the care support pattern of the middle-aged sandwich generation towards their elderly parents. Unlike most western reports, Hong Kong adult sons reveal an active participation in the actual behaviour of care of their elderly parents, especially in financial and emotional support - not much less than their female sibling counterparts. This article further compares the perception of care responsibility from the receiveras vs the giveras perspective. The results show consistent findings between values towards elderly care and actual care behaviours received from the parentsa side, in which the sons are expected and are acting as the major caregiver, much more so than the daughters. However, inconsistent results are found regarding the major responsibility towards various family members between the two generations. Adult children tend to take their own children (or the third generation) as the top priority of their family responsibilities, while elderly parents come in second and their own spouse comes third. The pattern of elderly support in Hong Kong is argued to be a product of patriarchal norms within a changing gendered societal context. The author contends that the pattern can be explained by the interaction of blood relations with a gendered division of labour.

Larkin E. & Newman S. (2001). Benefits of intergenerational staffing in preschools. Educational Gerontology 27, 373-385.

                This article reports on a national study of older adults working in childcare as volunteers or aides. Observations, interviews, and a rating scale were used to identify the unique contributions of older adults who have not been formally trained as early childhood educators. Findings showed that the nurturing presence of the older adults brought a familial dimension to these settings that complemented what younger, trained teachers provide in the classroom. Although their behaviors are not always consistent with professional standards for early childhood educators, they make a significant and unique contribution that enriches all participants. The authors make recommendations for training and support to include older adults effectively in preschool classrooms as part of an intergenerational caregiving team. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Milewski-Hertlein, K.  (2001).  The use of a socially constructed genogram in clinical practice.  American Journal of Family Therapy, 29, 1, 23-38.

                Discusses the rationale for a socially constructed genogram, allowing for multiple definitions of family to be represented. It describes the role of the problem system and the utility of this genogram in these situations. It describes the set-up of a socially constructed genogram and provides clinical examples. The socially constructed genogram meets the task of the standard genogram in the following areas: It can be useful for engaging the problem-system in therapy. It can arrange for key experiences in the client's relationships and behaviors. It provides the clinician a way of understanding what relationships have impact on the client and brings patterns that are evident in social relationships to the forefront. Once these relationships and patterns are disclosed, issues can be reframed and detoxified, enabling them to correct the patterns. It helps clients to identify support systems that they were not aware was there and this can facilitate feeling better. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Schwalbach, E. & Kiernan, S. (2002). Effects of an intergenerational friendly visit program on the attitudes of fourth graders toward elders. Educational Gerontology 28, 175-187.

                This article describes the effects of an intergenerational friendly visit program on the attitudes toward the elders of a class of 22 fourth graders. Students visited with their elder "special friends' at a nursing home every week for five months. In-class lessons regarding students' knowledge and attitudes toward elders prepared students for the visits. The results of this qualitative study indicated that students gained a raised level of awareness regarding elders and the aging process. Their attitudes revealed a realistic view of both the positive and negative aspects of aging. Their attitudes toward their "special friends' were consistently positive and their empathy increased during the course of the study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Whitbeck, L. B., Hoyt, D. R. & Tyler, K. A. (2001). Family relationship histories, intergenerational relationship quality, and depressive affect among rural elderly people. The Journal of Applied Gerontology 20 (2), 214-229.

                Based on a sample of matched adult children (aged 29-68 yrs) and aging parents (aged 51-91 yrs) in the rural Midwest, this study examined the effects of family relationship history on depressive symptoms among elderly parents. The study used reports from both adult children and aging parents regarding intergenerational affectional solidarity and relationship strain. Aging parents reported levels of depressed affect. Adult children's recalled early relationships with their parents were associated with elderly parents' reports of depressed affect through the effects of early family relationships on contemporary relationships. Reports of early relationships and contemporary relationships were separated by 5 yrs. It is suggested that family relationship characteristics persist across time and that family relationship patterns affect the abilities of family members to negotiate support for elderly parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

SW 515 Human Behavior and the Social Environment II

ACTIVITY – Aging Well

ACTIVITY – The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire

ACTIVITY – Facts on Aging Questionnaire I and II

Bhatti, M.  (2006)When I’m in the garden I can create my own paradise”: Homes and gardens in later life.  The Sociological Review, 54, 2, 318-341.

            This paper brings together recent work on later life & considers the effects of ageing in relation to participation & interest in gardening. Whilst there is considerable research & literature on issues such as health, housing, & social care, the significance of the garden in process of home-making is less well understood. Using qualitative data from the Mass Observation Data Archive, key physical, psycho-social processes that impact on the use of the garden & gardening activities are examined. It will be suggested that the garden can have major significance in the (re) creation of "home" in later life.

Boyle, G.  (2005)The role of autonomy in explaining mental ill-health and depression among older people living in long-term care settings.  Ageing and Society, 25, 5, 731-748.

            This paper examines the extent of mental ill-health & probable depression among older people in long-term care. It presents selected findings from a study in Greater Belfast, Northern Ireland, that compared the quality of life, autonomy & mental health of older people living in nursing & residential homes with those of older people living in private households who were receiving domiciliary care. Structured interviews were conducted with 214 residents in institutions & 44 older people receiving domiciliary care. The study found that those in private households were more severely physically-impaired & had a higher level of mental ill-health than the residents of institutional homes. It is suggested, however, that the mental ill-health effects were associated less with physical impairments than with the restrictions placed on the older person's decisional autonomy, & that long-term care environments that constrain the older person's autonomy contribute to the development of depression. Although the UK National Service Framework for Older People specified that those with depression should be given treatment & support, priority should also be given to preventing the depression associated with living in long-term care settings.

Cairney, J. & Kraus, N.  (2005)The social distribution of psychological distress and depression in older adults.  Journal of Aging and Health, 17, 6, 807-835.

            Objective: This study examines the associations between social position & mental health & explores whether differences in distress & depression by social position can be accounted for by differences in the major components of the stress process model. We extend previous work by including an ethnocultural measure alongside more traditional measures of social position. Method: Secondary data analysis of the 1994 National Population Health Survey. Results: Consistent with findings from studies of younger adults, mental health in later life is determined in part by age, gender, marital status, education, & ethnocultural factors. The data indicate that the life experiences connected to these social positions are largely responsible for these effects. Discussion: Our findings suggest that key social factors are related to mental health in late life, because one's position in the social structure shapes the stressors they encounter & the resources they have at their disposal to cope with them.

Carr, D.  (2004).  The desire to date and remarry in older widows and widowers.  Journal of Marriage and Family, 66, 4, 1051-1068.

            This study explores gender differences in older widowed persons' interest in dating & remarriage, & the implications of these desires for psychological adjustment to loss. Analyses are based on the Changing Lives of Older Couples study (N = 210). Men's interest in dating & remarriage is conditional upon the amount of social support received from friends. Six months after spousal loss, only those men with low or average levels of social support from friends are more likely than women to report interest in remarrying someday. Similar patterns emerge for interest in dating 18 months after loss. Persons who both want & have a romantic relationship report significantly fewer depressive symptoms 18 months after loss, yet this relationship is attributable to their greater socioeconomic resources.

Caputo, R.  (2001).  Depression and health among grandmothers co-residing with grandchildren in two cohorts of women.  Families in Society, 82, 5, 473-483.

                This paper examined depression and health of grandmothers who co-resided with grandchildren in 1997 in two cohorts of women, one aged 30-44 in 1967, and the other aged 14-24 in 1968. Co-resident grandmothers in both cohorts were more likely than other mothers to have higher levels of depression and about one-fifth were likely to exhibit levels high enough to place them "at risk" for clinical depression. Co-residency, however, was not found to be a good predictor of either level of depression or changes in the level of depression, but prior levels of depression were positively related to changes in the level of depression among mothers in general when controlling for current or previous co-residency. Health status was found to be a good predictor of depression when accounting for co-residency and work effort among other factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Cook, J. M., Pearson, J. L., Thompson, R., Black, B. S. & Rabins, P. V. (2002).  Suicidality in older African Americans: Findings from the EPOCH study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 10 (4), 437-446.

                The authors examined the current frequency of suicidality and associated characteristics in a sample of 835 55-96 yr old African-American residents of six urban public housing developments who consented to participate in an intervention trial of mobile outreach. The frequency of passive and active suicidal ideation was 2.5% and 1.4%, respectively. Characteristics of individuals with both active and passive suicidality included elevated anxiety, social dysfunction, somatic symptoms, low social support, lack of a confidant, and low religiosity. Characteristics of those with passive, but not active, ideation also included older age, lower levels of education, elevated depressive symptoms, poorer cognitive functioning, and having recently discussed emotional problems with a healthcare provider. The characteristics of those reporting active, but not passive, ideation included having a history of mental health treatment and reporting no instrumental support. Multivariate analyses indicated that depression and religiosity were uniquely associated with passive suicidal ideation, and life satisfaction and religiosity were uniquely associated with active suicidal ideation. The authors discuss implications of these findings and offer suggestions for research and clinical practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Cox, C.  (2002).  Empowering African American custodial grandparents.  Social Work, 47, 45-54.

                The increase in grandparent-headed households is receiving much attention as the needs and concerns of these grandparents become more widely known. However, to the extent that services focus on the problems of this population, there is an inherent danger in overlooking their unique strengths and abilities. Empowerment training builds on these strengths to enable people to develop self-efficacy and their own problem-solving skills. In so doing, those empowered grandparents further empower the communities in which they live. This article describes an empowerment training project and its curriculum that was developed for a group of 14 African American grandmothers (aged 50-75 yrs). The program resulted in strengthened parenting skills, and development of the participants into community peer educators. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Desselle, D. & Proctor, T.  (2000).  Advocating for the elderly hard-of-hearing population: The deaf people we ignore.  Social Work, 45, 3, 277-281.

                The writers discuss the issue of how social workers should deal with those that are hard-of-hearing. They note that because hearing impairment is not a visible disability, social workers may be at a loss when seeking to communicate with people whose hearing is impaired. They assert that what sometimes occurs is that communication and relationships suffer, information breakdowns occur, and people may speak in front of the hard-of-hearing person as if he or she is not there. They explain that one of social work's basic principles is empowerment with dignity, and they contend that this principle especially applies to people with hearing loss. They provide a list of practice interventions for improving communication with those who have hearing problems, and they suggest a number of coping mechanisms for this population. They contend that for social workers dealing with clients who are hard of hearing, the most important factor is awareness, and they outline various other factors that should be taken into account.

Eekhof, J. A. H., De Bock, G. H., Schaapveld, K. & M. P. Springer. (2000).  Effects of screening for disorders among the elderly: An intervention study in general practice.  Family Practice 17 (4), 329-333.

                Assessed the effects of general practitioners' (GPs') screening of the elderly on 4 highly prevalent disorders with possibilities for treatment: hearing and visual disorders, urinary incontinence and mobility disorders. In an intervention study in 12 general practices, 1,121 Ss aged 75 yrs and over were screened. Randomization was done by practice into an intervention group (576) and a control group (545). In the intervention group, all patients were screened for the 4 disorders during the first year of the study. When the GP and patient agreed on intervention, usual care was provided by the GP. Patients in the control group were not screened in the 1st year. In the 2nd year, all patients in both groups were screened for the disorders. None of the 4 disorders showed a measurable effect of the screening at the population level found. In the 1st year, 1,013 new disorders were found involving 479 of 576 people. The GPs considered information to be new in 293 cases. In 245 cases (out of 293), the GP discussed the new information with the patient. Of the 89 cases in which the patient agreed with an intervention, improvement was reported in 17 cases. Thus, implementing a standardized screening programme for the 4 highly prevalent disorders for elderly people is not recommended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Gibson, P.  (2002).  African American grandmothers as caregivers: Answering the call to help their grandchildren.  Families in Society, 83, 1, 35-43.

                Examined the experiences of African American grandmothers who have assumed the parental role in kinship care for their grandchildren. 12 46-76 yr old grandmothers described their own experiences and why they assumed the role of becoming a mother again. Six interrelated themes emerged from interviews: (1) tradition of kinkeeping, (2) relationship with grandchildren, (3) distrust of the foster care system, (4) grandmother as the only resource, (5) strong relationship with the Lord, and (6) refusal of the grandchild's other grandmother to assist with caregiving. These themes are used as a guide to make recommendations to enhance the lives of grandmothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Gordon, R. M. & Brill, D. (2001).  The abuse and neglect of the elderly. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 24, 183-197.

                Discusses research into the prevalence and causes of abuse and neglect of the elderly. The rates, frequency, and prevalence of abuse and neglect have been tabulated, the characteristics of both the abused and abusers have been recorded, and risk factors identified. Several hypotheses have been developed based on this research: the stressed caregiver hypothesis, the learned violence hypothesis, the psychopathology hypothesis, and the dependency hypothesis. More recent research suggests that it is more useful to develop an integrated theoretic model that describes the potential interactions between different factors or variables, and to use this model along with the known correlates of abuse to help guide the development of legislation, policy, and practice. The integrated theory considers the relationships among caregiver stress, victim stress, external or environmental stressors (such as financial problems), a history of aggressive and violent behavior, and alcohol or drug dependence or mental illness. Suggestions are made for research into the abuse and neglect of the elderly that explores issues raised by the integrated theory and model presented in this article. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Greene, R. & Wright, M.  (2005)The contemporary older man: Summary and discussion.  Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 32, 1, 135-138.

            This edition of the journal included eight articles on the contemporary older man and the challenges and opportunities he may face. Taken together, the articles offer several educational opportunities for discussing older men within schools of social work human behavior content. More research is needed to answer questions related to older men. Thus far, research has failed to sufficiently explore the ramifications related to men's successful aging.

Jones, E. D. & Beck-Little, R. (2002).  The use of reminiscence therapy for the treatment of depression in rural-dwelling older persons.  Issues in Mental Health Nursing 23, 279-290.

            This article explores the potential for the use of reminiscence therapy as an effective means of reducing depression among institutionalized, rural-dwelling elders, especially elderly women. Reminiscence therapy is a nurse-initiated intervention that has the advantages of being cost-effective, therapeutic, social, and recreational for the institutionalized older adult. As a communicative psychosocial process, reminiscence therapy has proven to be a valuable intervention for the depressed elderly client. It has been shown that depressed elders living in rural areas resist treatment from mental health services for a variety of different reasons. For those elders, reminiscence therapy may prove an extremely beneficial alternative to more traditional treatment modalities in reducing the effects of depression and depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Kivnick, H, & Murry, S.  (2001).  Life strengths interview guide.  Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 34, 7-32.

                While standardization of assessment tools in gerontological social work permits comparability across individuals, and within individuals across time paradoxically, this same standardization eliminates from consideration those individual differences that may have most to do with client outcomes. This manuscript presents a theoretical and practical basis for assessing strengths in frail elder clients, and for using these strengths in designing and implementing individual case plans. Further, an assessment tool is introduced in the form of a set of specific questions that may be used by practitioners in meaningfully gathering information about personal strengths and assets from frail elder clients.

Knight, B.G., & McCallum, T.J. (1998). Adapting psychotherapeutic practice for older clients:  Implications of the contextual, cohort-based, maturity, specific challenge model. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29, 15-22.

                The contextual, cohort-based, maturity, specific challenge model integrates concepts from gerontology with psychotherapy to apply those ideas in psychotherapy with older adults. The model suggests that older adults display greater maturity than younger adults but may also be facing some of the most difficult challenges of adulthood. The model further asserts that the social context of older adults and the fact that they are members of earlier-born cohorts should be recognized and incorporated into the psychotherapeutic process. Although the model outlines important differences between older and younger adults in therapy, similarities often outweigh differences between the groups as the process of psychotherapy unfolds. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Levine, J.  (2001).  Working with victims of persecution: Lessons from Holocaust survivors.  Social Work, 46, 4, 350-360.

                It is estimated that 25 to 30 million people are forced to leave their homes because of human rights violations or threats to their lives. Such massive dislocations at the international level result in significant numbers of diverse, persecuted populations seeking asylum in the United States. It is estimated that as many as 400,000 victims of torture now reside in the United States, with many survivors suffering in silence. The challenge for social workers is to discover this often hidden, vulnerable population and to serve them. Among all the populations experiencing the trauma and stress of persecution, most is know about Holocaust survivors. Through examining the long-term effects of massive psychic trauma gleaned from research on Holocaust survivors and their children, this article addresses the skills, techniques, and insights about current refugee populations that can be incorporated into social work practice and training. (Journal abstract.)

Martin, J., Shochat, T. & Ancoli-Israel, S. (2000).  Assessment and treatment of sleep disturbances in older adults. Clinical Psychology Review 20 (6), 783-805.

                Reviews what sleep is and how it changes with advancing age. Prevalent causes of sleep disturbance seen in old age, assessment strategies for understanding the disturbance, and treatment strategies that have been deemed most effective considering the specific needs of older individuals are examined. The article focuses on several problems with sleep that are often secondary to medical illness and/or medication use or are due to specific problems such as sleep disordered breathing, periodic limb movements in sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances. It is noted that the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing and periodic limb movement in sleep increases with age. Also, the circadian rhythm tends to advance with age, causing older people to awaken early in the morning. Insomnia is often caused by pain associated with medical illness and can also be caused by stimulating medications. In institutionalized elderly, sleep becomes even more disturbed and fragmented than in community-dwelling older adults. The authors argue that accurate assessment and diagnosis is crucial since effective treatment strategies are available for these sleep disturbances. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Mental health and mental illness in later life [Special issue].  (2002).  Generations, 26, 1.

                A special issue on mental health and mental illness in later life. Topics discussed include the latest developments in basic research in, effective assessment and treatment of, and public policy on aging and mental health.

Murray, L. L. (2002).  Cognitive distinctions between depression and early Alzheimer’s disease in the elderly. Aphasiology 16 (4/5/6), 573-585.

                Examined the degree to which language and attention deficits can distinguish depression and early Alzheimer's disease (AD) in elderly individuals. 16 elderly adults (aged 61-84 yrs) with depression and 15 adults (aged 60-86 yrs) with early AD completed neuropsychological tests concerning basic and complex attention, language, and memory. Results show that the attention abilities of depressed Ss, particularly attention performance latencies, were most compromised compared to healthy controls. Tests of complex attention functions, working and episodic memory, and high-level language comprehension and production were most useful at distinguishing depressed from early-AD Ss. Findings suggest that a small subset of high-level cognitive tests may allow accurate discrimination of elderly patients with depression from those in the early stages of AD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved

Moon, A.  (2000).  Perceptions of elder abuse among various cultural groups: Similarities and differences.  Generations, 24, 2, 75-80.

                13 scenarios were used in interviews to measure and compare perceptions of elder abuse and help-seeking behaviors of 30 African-American, 30 Caucasian-American, and 30 Korean-American elderly women (aged 60-75 yrs). Significant group differences existed in perceptions of elder abuse with regard to 6 scenarios, and Korean-American women were substantially less likely to perceive a given situation as abusive than the other groups. The groups also showed significant differences in their indications of the likelihood of their use of formal and informal sources of help in the case of elder abuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Nelson-Becker, H.  (2005)Religion and coping in older adults: a social work perspectiveJournal of Gerontological Social Work, 45, 1-2, 51-67.

            Religion is an important coping resource for many older adults. This paper briefly describes social work's religious roots, makes a distinction between religion & spirituality for older adults, & presents empirical data showing how older adults employ religious strategies to cope with life challenge. The study reports on religious coping in an available sample of 79 European American & African American older adults residing in urban community dwellings. Implications suggest how social workers & others may support religious coping.

O'Hara, B. (2001). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of anxiety in late life from a schema-focused approach. Clinical Gerontologist, 22, 23-36.

                Discusses a schema-focused approach as a clinical intervention for older adults with anxiety. The author proposes that loss events in late life can activate a maladaptive schema that may be characterized by symptoms of anxiety. These symptoms may be a signal from an older person's body that something in her or his life needs attention. Anti-anxiety medication may interfere with addressing important developmental and contextual issues in late life. A schema-focused approach can help older clients to identify their maladaptive schema, to understand how it relates to current losses, behaviors, and symptoms, and to make changes in their lives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Probstfield, M.  (2001, April).  Perceptions of death.  Paper presented at the Souther Sociological Society Conference, Atlanda, GA.

                The purpose of this paper is to explore how people perceive their own death, with focus on how people know or comprehend their own death at various age levels. Three different age cohorts will be examined: an elderly, middle-aged, & typical college-level population. Surveys & personal interviews will be used within each age cohort to obtain comparative results.

Ramsey-Klawsnik, H.  (2000).  Elder-abuse offenders: A typology.  Generations, 24, 2, 6-12.

                Part of a special issue on abuse and neglect of older people. The writer examines elder-abuse offenders. She notes that offenders are usually viewed as under stress or as guilty of criminal behavior. She offers a typology of elder-abuse offenders, listing five main types: the overwhelmed; the impaired; the narcissistic; the domineering or bullying; and the sadistic. She concludes that recognition of the factors and variables of elder maltreatment cases are important in prevention, recognition, and intervention in such cases and that the typology offered may aid this process.

Tueth, M. J. (2000). Exposing financial exploitation of impaired elderly persons. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 8 (2), 104-111.

                There is a dearth of medical publications on financial exploitation of elderly persons, but a significant amount of information on this subject is contained in the literature of other disciplines. Financial abuse accounts for up to one-half of all types of elder abuse in the United States, accounting for over 500, 000 victims. Psychological abuse, including deception, intimidation, and threats, always accompanies financial exploitation. Despite the devastating emotional and financial losses incurred, physicians are reluctant to recognize, diagnose, and assist impaired elderly victims of financial exploitation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Wagenaar, D.B., Mickus, M.A., & Wilson, J. (2001). Alcoholism in late life: Challenges and complexities. Psychiatric Annals, 3(11), 665-672.

                Discusses alcohol abuse as a hidden epidemic in the elderly population, often poorly assessed or neglected by health care professionals as patients are evaluated and treatment is considered. Considerations in the application of diagnostic criteria for alcoholism to older adults are outlined. The prevalence of alcoholism in older adults is discussed, as is age of onset. Alcoholism in late life has been divided into 2 groups, defined by the age of onset of drinking and the duration of alcohol use. Risk factors associated with late-life alcoholism are considered. Similar to younger individuals, elderly individuals with alcohol use or abuse difficulties do not often voluntarily seek help for their illness. Instead, they may present with increased medical, psychological, or environmental difficulties that should raise the clinician's suspicions. Unfortunately, it is noted that many clinicians may attribute alcohol-related symptoms to age-related changes alone, or to age-related comorbidities. Factors in treating elderly alcoholic patients are addressed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Waldrop, D. & Weber, J.  (2001).  From grandparent to caregiver: The stress and satisfaction of raising grandchildren.  Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 82, 5, 461-472.

                The circumstances faced by grandparents who become caregivers for their grandchildren are complicated and stressful. In-depth interviews were conducted with 54 grandparent caregivers (37 grandmothers and 17 grandfathers). Analysis of qualitative data involved the use of QSR NUD*IST software for organizing and coding interview transcripts. Subsets of financial, family, and legal problems specific to grandparent caregiving were identified. Grandparent caregivers acquire problem-specific coping strategies, which include taking action, talking about feelings, religious faith, focus on the grandchild, outreach to others, and some "less desirable" means. Caregiver satisfaction was related to the joys of children, the tasks of child-rearing participating in grandchildren's activities, a new focus for life, and watching a child's accomplishments. This study identified the need for additional research about interventions for the stress and coping responses of grandparent caregivers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Williams, E. & Donnelly, J.  (2002).  Older Americans and AIDS: Some guidelines for preventionSocial Work, 47, 105-111.

                Social workers provide senior citizens with varied services in diverse settings and are in a position to assume leadership in slowing the spread of AIDS among this age group. Unfortunately older people often do not receive the knowledge needed to protect themselves against infection. Historically, older Americans have been largely ignored by HIV/AIDS prevention programs. The major risk behaviors among senior citizens include sexual activity without using condoms, alcohol and drug use, blood transfusions received before 1985, and misdiagnosed opportunistic illness such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, respiratory disease, and sexually transmitted diseases. The article discusses guidelines that can help social workers provide prevention education to older Americans. Social work's primary prevention AIDS education efforts can help older adults safely live out the rest of their lives secure in the understanding that they possess the knowledge to protect themselves from HIV/AIDS infection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

SW 516 Social Welfare Policy and Services

ACTIVITY – Review living wills

Bartels, S. & Smyer, M.  (2002).  Mental disorders of aging: An emerging mental health crisis?  Generations, 26, 1, 14-20.

                Part of a special issue on mental health and mental illness in later life. Although there are effective treatments for many late-life mental health problems, a gap exists between current mental health services and the infrastructure required to meet the anticipated dramatic increase in the number of older adults with mental disorders. A public health crisis could arise from the substantial under-investment in research, knowledge dissemination, and service development. A major health initiative by policy makers, providers, and researchers is necessary to avert the substantial adverse effect on public health and health-care financing in the future and the substantial individual and family costs of geriatric mental illness.

Berkman, B., Gardner, D., Zodikoff, B., & Harootyan, L.  (2005).  Social work in health care with older adults: future challengesFamilies in Society, 86, 3, 329-337.

                Dramatic changes in demography, epidemiology, & the financing & delivery of health care have significantly affected the lives of older adults & their families. The authors review current & future trends in aging & health care in the United States & their implications for social work practice in enhancing the health & well-being of older adults & their caregivers. Health care social work in the 21st century requires the development & application of evidence-based knowledge that reflects the interrelatedness of aging, physical & mental health, & intergenerational family processes. The authors demonstrate the value of social work research to issues that are in the forefront of gerontological health care practice, policy, & education.

Bronstein, L. & Admiraal, K.  (2005).  Implications of an aging population on the delivery of public sector social services.  Families in Society, 86, 1, 47-54.

                Over the coming years, demographers report a rapid increase in the number of people over age 65, and in particular the number of persons from ethnic and racial minority groups over 65. While professionals in aging services are paying close attention to these trends and their implications, there are widespread implications that go beyond aging services. Using New York State as a case in point, this paper utilizes literature, demographics, and interviews with key informants to focus on two major trends associated with these demographic shifts: the increase in family caregiving and grandparents raising grandchildren. These trends are examined for their impact on the design and delivery of services including TANF, child welfare and adult protective services. Professionals beyond those in aging services are called upon to be aware of the impact of these aging demographics for clients in the array of public social service systems, and to meet the challenges of these demographic trends with a multigenerational and multicultural agenda.

Galambos, C. M. (1998). Preserving end-of-life autonomy: The Patient Self-Determination Act and the Uniform Health Care Decisions Act. Health and Social Work 23 (4), 275-281.

                As medical technology continues to advance and health care choices become more complicated, the preservation of end-of-life autonomy is an increasingly important issue faced by various client populations. This article examines two legislative efforts aimed at preserving end-of-life autonomy: The Patient Self-Determination Act and the Uniform Health Care Decisions Act. The enactment of both acts will provide a more comprehensive approach to advance directive planning. The article advocates for passage of the Uniform Health Care Decisions Act in all 50 states. Implications for social work practice are discussed from a research, community action, and clinical perspective. (Journal abstract.)

Galambos, C. & Rosen, A. (1999). The aging are coming and they are us. Health and Social Work 24 (1), 73-77.

                The United Nations declared 1999 the International Year of Older Persons. As the world's older population experiences a phenomenal growth rate, it is important to examine the implications for the social work profession, particularly health care social workers. This article examines the implications of this unprecedented aging phenomenon as they relate to the four major dimensions of the International Year of Older Persons conceptual framework: the situation of older people, life-long individual development, multigenerational relationships, and the relationship between development and the aging of populations. The five principles of this conceptual framework (independence, participation, care, self-fulfillment, and dignity) are discussed as they relate to the health policy arena. (Journal abstract.)

Greene, R.R., & Knee, R.I. (1996). Shaping the policy practice agenda of social work in the field of aging. Social Work, 41(5): 553-559.

                Argues that contemporary social work practice will, of necessity, involve a politically active stance that will strengthen and redefine the relationship between legislative policy and social work practice in the field of aging. Because the range of services to elderly people and their families encompass mental health clinics and hospitals, core policy change might transform the social service industry. An increasing need for agencies to develop innovative programming, evaluate practice effectiveness, and compete for funding exists due to changes proposed by Congress. Social work practitioners are challenged to refine or redefine their goals while remaining true to social work values and ethics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Feldman, P., Nadash, P., & Gursen, M.  (2001).  Improving communication between researchers and policy makers in long-term care: Or, researchers are from Mars; policy makers are from Venus.  The Gerontologist, 41, 3, 312-321.

                The writers report that in their work with the Home Care Research Initiative, they experimented with a number of dissemination tactics and came to realize the difficulties in tailoring information for different policy audiences. They relate their exploration of the problem of dissemination through discussions they held with state long-term care (LTC) policymakers about their research information needs and through their examination of the activities of groups that communicate LTC data. They state that they supplemented this "environmental scan" with a convention of LTC researchers and policy makers to explore their findings. They indicate that their analysis has revealed a mismatch between the activities researchers and brokers engage in and the perceived needs of LTC policymakers. They present their recommendations for synthesizing, translating, and disseminating complex and important policy-relevant research findings and for bridging the gap between researchers and policymakers.

Older Americans Act.  (2000).  Available online: http://www.aoa.gov/about/legbudg/oaa/legbedg_oaa.asp.

                The Older Americans Act was originally signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on July 14, 1965.  In addition to creating the Administration on Aging, it authorized grants to States for community planning and services programs, as well as for research, demonstration and training projects in the field of aging. Later amendments to the Act added grants to Area Agencies on Aging for local needs identification, planning, and funding of services, including but not limited to nutrition programs in the community as well as for those who are homebound; programs which serve Native American elders; services targeted at low-income minority elders; health promotion and disease prevention activities; in-home services for frail elders, and those services which protect the rights of older persons such as the long term care ombudsman program. (from Administration on Aging website)

Otto, J.  (2000).  The role of adult protective services in addressing abuse.  Generations, 24, 2, 33-28.

                Part of a special issue on abuse and neglect of older people. The writer examines the role of Adult Protection Services (APS) in addressing elder abuse. She indicates that APS has a long history in the U.S., with the earliest formal study on its importance carried out in 1960. She notes that the area of APS has grown and matured since the 1960s, and she reveals that by the mid 1990s, many states had reformed and expanded their APS laws. She asserts that many states have also increased funding for staff, training, public education, offender registries, and emergency client services. She concludes that APS plays a growing role in elder-abuse prevention and has become recognized and valued for its service to the most vulnerable adults.

Prince, M.  (2002, August 19).  Graying of America calls for new benefits strategies: Changing demographics mean employers will have to attract, retain older workers.  Business Insurance, 36, 33, 3.

                Reports the benefit strategies for making for attracting the aging population to work in the U.S. Enhancement of the benefits for the older workers; Changes on the retirement plan strategy; Determination on the passion of every employee.

Rizzo, V. & Rowe, J.  (2006).  Studies the cost-effectiveness of social work services in aging: A review of the literature.  Research on Social Work Practice, 16, 1, 67-73.

                The American population aged 65 years & older is growing rapidly, creating an increased demand for social workers. Reimbursement structures of Medicare & Medicaid present significant barriers for aging individuals seeking social work services as well as social workers wanting to provide services to the elderly. To build a case for the modification of these reimbursement structures, a review of studies of social work services in aging was conducted to (a) make explicit the current knowledge of the efficacy & cost-effectiveness of these services, (b) identify current gaps in knowledge, (c) promote a research agenda to address the gaps, & (e) assure that the knowledge identified addresses payers' needs to understand the value of social work services in aging. The results indicate that social work interventions can have a positive impact on the health care costs, the use of health care services, & the quality of life of older Americans.

Serafini, M.  (2002).  AARP’s new direction.  National Journal, 34, 1, 28-32.

                Discusses the September 2001 suspension of the lobbying campaign of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) for a prescription drug benefit for Medicare recipients in the United States. Political agendas regarding the campaign; Controversies in AARP; Significance of the marketing background of AARP Executive Director Bill Novelli

Sullivan, M.D. (2002). The Illusion of Patient Choice in End-of-Life Decisions. American Journal Of Geriatric Psychiatry, 10(4): 365-471.

                After passage of the Patient Self-Determination Act and the Cruzan decision by the Supreme Court, honoring individual patient choice has become the primary means by which we have sought to improve the quality of life of the dying patient. However, the decision-making capacity of the dying patient is usually compromised, and advance directives have not consistently improved the dying process. We respect patient autonomy in order to respect the patient as a person; patient autonomy should be respected to the degree that it is intact. When autonomy is significantly diminished, as it usually is in dying patients, respecting autonomy reconstructed from documents or proxies may not be the best way to respect the dying person. We rather need to seek social consensus about when patients are dying, the nature of a "good death," and when it is preferable to a longer life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Yates, J. & Gillespie, W.  (2000).  The elderly and prison policy.  Journal of Aging and Social Policy, 11, 2-3, 167-175,

                Part of a special issue on advancing aging policy as the 21st century begins. Noting that America's prisons are seeing a significant rise in the number of elderly prisoners that they deal with, the writers discuss this increase as a burgeoning policy concern. They consider some of the means that have been employed to tackle the problems posed by an aging prison population and provide some alternative solutions to addressing this situation. They argue that the increased costs of medical care for elderly inmates and the impending costs for prison expansion and renovation in coming years may outweigh the benefits society receives from incarcerating the elderly.

 SW 518 Social Work and Oppression

ACTIVITY- Myths about Aging Classroom Exercise

Angus, J. & Reeve, P.  (2006)Ageism: a threat to “aging well” in the 21st century.  The Journal of Applied Gerontology, 25, 2, 137-152.

            At the beginning of the 21st century, the new mantra-"successful" and "resourceful" aging -- is used interchangeably and intoned often unreflectively by a society eager to find ways to reduce aged-related losses. Yet despite numerous empirical studies and public health promotion strategies directed at ways of aging well, negative images of aging have an enduring vitality. This article examines ageism in a range of political, social, and cultural manifestos that have a productive role in encoding tacit assumptions and stereotypes about older people's lives. Particular attention is given to the pervasive use of the concept of "dependency," a stereotypic and productive ageist mechanism that continues to infiltrate what are arguably more inclusive strategies directed toward a global model of aging well. The authors explore some potential strategies to combat stereotypes and warn that aging well initiatives based on individualism and "self-responsibility" risk reproducing existing power relations that continue to inform ageist stereotypes.

Baez, A. & Hernandez, D. (2001). Complementary spiritual beliefs in the Latino community: The interface with psychotherapy. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 71(4), 408-415.

                Proposes a model involving a dynamic spectrum of belief by Latinos in the spiritual traditions of Santeria and Espiritismo as a replacement for the more static prevalence model. This article is intended to help non-Latino mental health practitioners develop a level of understanding and respect for other spiritual traditions, as well as achieve the adjustment of clinical techniques necessary for better cultural responsiveness to patients who hold such beliefs. A brief introduction to Santeria and Espiritismo is given to help orient those unfamiliar with these belief systems. The issue of clinical responsiveness to such material is examined and illustrated, and implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Beyene, Y., Becker, G. & Mayen, N. (2002).  Perception of aging and sense of well-being among Latino elderly. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology 17, 155-172.

                Examined perception of aging and sense of well-being among Latino elderly. Data from in-depth interviews of 83 Latino elders (aged 51-97 yrs) show that perception of aging is influenced by the level and quality of social support, and fulfilled cultural expectations, and having strong faith in God. The authors note that the above factors also seem to influence sense of emotional well-being despite physical functional capacity and chronic health conditions. The most reported concerns by all study participants are fear of loneliness and the prospect of living in nursing homes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Cohen, H., Greene, R., Lee, Y., Gonzalez, J., Evans, M.  (2006).  Older adults who overcame oppression.  Families in Society, 87, 1, 35-42.

            This article presents the results of a study that examined 24 ethnically diverse older adults' autobiographical memories of critical life events involving discrimination & oppression. Narrative interviews reveal the impact that such experiences have on individual, family, & societal resilience. The study contributes to the growing body of research literature that allows for a deeper understanding of how a client's particular life story & personal experiences interplay with collective histories. It also discusses how clinicians, including physicians, nurses, & social workers, can benefit from conversations that mutually construct personal narratives that reveal circumstances pertinent to intervention strategies.

Cox, C. B. (2002).  Empowering African American custodial grandparents. Social Work 47 (1), 45-54.

                The increase in grandparent-headed households is receiving much attention as the needs and concerns of these grandparents become more widely known. However, to the extent that services focus on the problems of this population, there is an inherent danger in overlooking their unique strengths and abilities. Empowerment training builds on these strengths to enable people to develop self-efficacy and their own problem-solving skills. In so doing, those empowered grandparents further empower the communities in which they live. This article describes an empowerment training project and its curriculum that was developed for a group of 14 African American grandmothers (aged 50-75 yrs). The program resulted in strengthened parenting skills, and development of the participants into community peer educators. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Cummings, S. M., Kropf, N. P. & De Weaver, K. L. (2000).  Knowledge of and attitudes toward aging among non-elders: Gender and race differences. Journal of Women and Aging 12(1/2), 77-91.

                Examined the relationship between non-elderly’s  knowledge of and anxieties regarding personal aging and their gender and race. 884 Ss (aged 18-55 yrs) participated in this study. The authors hypothesized that nonelderly women and persons of color, those who will experience multiple jeopardy in their own late life, would report greater anxiety about their own aging process than did men and majority group members. Women did report lower income and education levels, less knowledge of aging, greater anxiety related to their own aging process, and more time involved in caregiving activities. People of color also differed from Caucasians in certain dimensions of knowledge and anxiety. Implications from these results include the creation of public educational strategies and the organization of women and minorities to more actively address the development and shape of age-related policies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

David, G. (2001).  Aging, religion, and spirituality: Advancing meaning in later life. In F. L. Ahearn (ed.) Issues in Global Aging. New York: Haworth Press, pp. 129-139.

                This essay first examines the ageist society and challenges its present mind-set to dispel ageism and engage in intervention designed to enhance quality of living.  It next moves to a consideration of aging and meaning and the role of religion and spirituality in advancing meaning in later life. It concludes with a brief discussion of meaning-making and soul-nourishment of the able-old and frail-old, affirming the value of spiritual development continuing throughout old age.

Ferraro, F.R. (2001). Assessment and Evaluation Issues Regarding Native American Elderly Adults. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, 7(4): 311-318.

                This paper will detail assessment and evaluation issues with Native American elderly adults. Recommendations and implications of such assessment and evaluation follow and include areas such as general background factors, cultural and family issues that impact assessment, problems to overcome, and finally a look into neuropsychological assessment. These issues will converge on the notion that mental health and neuropsychological assessment issues are relevant to Native American elderly, not because of the paucity of research in this area, but because Native American elderly are a fast-growing population, most in need of such vital services. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Giles, H., Liang, B., Noels, K. A. & McCann, R. M. (2001). Communicating across and with Generations: Taiwanese, Chinese-Americans, and Euro-Americans perceptions of communication. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication 11 (2), 161-179.

                Considers similarities and differences between Taiwanese and American young adults' perceptions of communication with same-age peers and adults 65 years of age and older. As well, in an attempt to discover how the acculturation process may affect intergenerational relations, the perceptions of young Chinese-Americans were also examined. Two-hundred and three participants (including 98 Taiwanese, 47 Euro-Americans, and 59 Chinese-Americans) completed a questionnaire that assessed their perceptions of accommodation and nonaccommodation from members of the two age groups. Also assessed was the extent to which the participants felt deferential towards and avoidant of communication with these two age groups, as well as the experience of positive emotions in these interactions. Consistent with earlier work, young adults were more positive with regards to communication with other younger adults than with older adults, and Euro-Americans generally perceived interactions more positively than people in Taiwan. The Chinese Americans were similar to the Taiwanese in some respects and similar to the Euro-Americans in others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Groger, L. & Mayberry, P. S. (2001).  Caring too much? Cultural lag in African Americans’perceptions of filial responsibilities. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology 16, 21-39.

                Explored African Americans' ideas about filial obligations. The findings are based on focus groups with 8 different age-homogeneous groups. Ss ranged from high-school students to elderly nursing home or day-care center clients. Although all age groups expressed strong commitment to filial obligations, they differed in their ability to recognize and accept constraints on family care. This variation was clearly related to cohort differences and participants' own experiences as caregivers or care receivers. Viewing their data through the lens of Clark and Anderson's (1965) adaptation model that distinguishes between adaptation, which is always positive, and adjustment, which may be negative, the authors found that younger cohorts' unbending idealism may lead to maladaptive behaviors should they be called upon suddenly and without preparation to assume the role of primary caregivers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Hurdle, D. E. (2002).  Native Hawaiian traditional healing: Culturally based interventions for social work practice. Social Work 47(2), 183-192.

                Developing cultural competence is a key requirement for social workers in the multicultural environment of the 21st century. However, the development of social work interventions that are syntonic with specific cultural groups is a great challenge. Interventions that are based on the traditional healing practices of a particular culture ensure cultural relevance and consistency with its values and worldview. This article discusses the importance of culturally based interventions within a cultural competence framework and offers examples of such interventions used with Native Hawaiians. Two interventions are discussed, targeted to the micro (direct practice) level and macro (community practice) level of practice. Culturally based social work interventions may be most appropriate for client systems within a particular culture; however, some methods, such as ho'oponopono, have been successfully used with clients from other cultures as well. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

Moon, A., Tomita, S.K.,  & Jung-Kamei, S. (2001). Elder mistreatment among four Asian American groups: An exploratory study on tolerance, victim blaming and attitudes toward third-party intervention. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 36, 153-169.

                Using 14 statements, this study examined similarities and differences among four groups of elders aged 60 yrs and older (American-born Chinese Americans, American-born Japanese Americans, first-generation Korean Americans, and first-generation Taiwanese Americans) with regard to tolerance for elder mistreatment behaviors, tendency to victim blame, and attitudes toward reporting elder mistreatment. The American-born groups were more likely to be tolerant of verbal abuse, less likely to blame the elderly parents for causing the mistreatment by their grown children, and more favorable toward reporting elder mistreatment to the authorities. The Korean Americans differed significantly from the other three groups: They had a greater tolerance for financial exploitation, were more likely to blame the elder as the cause of the mistreatment, and not favorable toward reporting and outside intervention. Among all participants, tolerance for elder mistreatment was strongly associated with victim blaming and not favoring reporting and outside intervention. The large percentages of "Don't know" and "It depends" responses to the statements among all four groups indicate that these groups are unfamiliar with the problems of elder mistreatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Schuldberg, J.  (2005).  It is easy to make judgements if it’s not familiar: The use of simulation kits to develop self-awareness and reduce ageism.  Journal of Social Work Education, 41, 3, 441-455.

                This study evaluated 99 baccalaureate social work students' reactions to simulation kits that replicated visual impairments common with the aging process. Through qualitative research methods, students' preconceived notions & reported incidents of ageism were assessed in light of their reactions to increased understanding of visual changes. The outcome was greater self-awareness & critical reflection of ageism & discrimination. Students reported enhanced awareness of personal, social, & professional implications. This research supports previous data which suggest that increased exposure to activities that simulate the disabilities & experiences of oppression in older adults provide an opportunity to reduce ageism.