Equal Protection of the Laws
The Equal Protection Clause prohibits states
from denying any person or class of persons the
same protection and rights that the law extends
to other similarly situated persons or classes of
In the modern era, the federal courts have relied
heavily on the Equal Protection Clause of Section
1 in advancing the civil rights of African-
Americans and other minority groups.
Brown v. Board of Education
(1954), in which
the Supreme Court abolished racial segregation
in the public schools, was based squarely on the
Equal Protection Clause.