The power of courts to declare government actions invalid if
they are determined to be contrary to constitutional
Marbury v. Madison
(1803), the Supreme Court assumed
the power to strike down unconstitutional federal statutes.
Later the Court extended the scope of judicial review to
encompass executive actions as well as state statutes.
Today, all actions of government, from the conduct of police
officers on the street to orders issued by the President, are
subject to judicial review.
Judicial review has become a bedrock principle of the
American legal and political systems. It is generally
regarded as essential to preserve the ideal of constitutional