The Debate Over Whether English Should Be Made the Official Language of the U.S.
by Nathan Kirkham

Bibliography

NEWS SOURCES

Associated Press. (1999). 'English Only' Is Set Back in Utah. Appeared in San Jose Mercury News. 1999, Jan. 22.

Bazinet, Kenneth R. (1999). Senate Furor On Puerto Rico. New York Daily News. 1999, May 7. Found on Dow Jones.

Boyer, Barbara. (1999). Education a priority, Gore tells Latinos. Philadelphia Inquirer. 1999, June 20.

DeMasters, Karen. (1999). Clifton Declares English Its Official Language. The New York Times. 1999, Sept. 12. Found on Dow Jones.

Driscoll, Amy. (1999). English-only Rule Angers Hispanics in Collier County. Miami Herald. 1999, April 17.

Egelko, Bob. (1999). Bilingual Class Ban Tightened. Associated Press. Appearing in Contra Costa Times. 1999, Sept. 28.

Foster, Shawn. (1999). English-Only Legislation Killed By House Vote. The Salt Lake Tribune. 1999, Jan. 22.

Gittelsohn, John and Chey, Elizabeth. (1999). Prop. 227's Influence Is Seen In Other States. Orange County Register. 1999, Aug. 9.

Irvine, Martha. (1999). Company's 'English Only' Policy Sparks EEOC Lawsuit. Associated Press. Appeared in St. Paul Pioneer Press. 1999, Sept. 2.

Koidin, Michelle. (1999). Bush, Gore Use Spanish To Get Votes. Associated Press. 1999, Aug. 4. Available: http://www.elausa.org/news/tx990804.html

Kolker, Claudia. (1999). Texas Town Decrees Its Public Business Be Done in Spanish. The Miami Herald. 1999, Aug. 14.

Martin, Hugo. (1999). Interpreters Help Unlock Civic Process. Los Angeles Times. 1999, Aug. 3.

Murphy, Michael. (1999). High Court Strikes Down 'Official English' Law. The Arizona Republic. 1999, Jan. 12.

Navrot, Miguel. (1999). Bilingual Bonus Not In New Contract. Albuquerque Journal. 1999, Nov. 11. Found on Dow Jones.

New York Times. (1999). Clifton Declares English City's Official Language. The New York Times. 1999, Sept. 10.

Nichols, Bill. (1996). House Oks Symbolic Bill to Require English in USA. USA Today. 1996, Aug. 2. Found on Lexis-Nexis.

Quinn, Francis X. (1999). Panel Lines Up Against English Bill. Associated Press. Appeared in Kennebec Journal. 1999, March 18. Available: http://www.centralmaine.com/031899/news21.html

Reuters. (1999). Florida Trucker Wins Against English-only Law. 1999, April 1.

Sack, Kevin. (1999). Non-English Speakers Sue Alabama Tax Official. The New York Times. 1999, June 4.

Stocum, Susan. (1999). English-only Lives In Some Iowa Counties. Associated Press. 1999, Oct. 2. Found on Dow Jones.

Talev, Margaret. (1999). Activists Turn Attention to 1985 Fillmore Ordinance. Los Angeles Times. 1999, Aug. 27.

Toomey, Sheila. (1999). English: Judge Says Law Unclear, Puts Debut On Hold. Anchorage Daily News. 1999, March 4.

Zeleny, Jeff. (1999). House Quickly Defeats Proposal To Make English "Official Language." Des Moines Register. 1999, April 21.

OPINION POLLS

Center for Survey Research--Univ. of Virginia. (1997). Sponsored by the Post-Modernity Project at the Univ. of Virginia. 1996 Survey of American Political Culture. 1997, March. Roper Center at Univ. of Connecticut-Public Opinion Online. Found on Lexis-Nexis.

English Language Advocates. (1999). English Language Advocates, 'Immigrants Need English to Succeed.' Viewed on PR Newswire 1999, Sept, 14.

Field Institute. (1989). California Poll. 1989, July. Found in Institute for Research in Social Science, Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Available: http://www.irss.unc.edu/tempdocs/23:45:33:9.htm

Field Institute. (1991). California Poll. 1991, May. Found in Institute for Research in Social Science, Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Available: http://www.irss.unc.edu/tempdocs/23:45:33:6.htm

Field Institute. (1992). California Poll. 1992, July. Found in Institute for Research in Social Science, Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Available: http://www.irss.unc.edu/tempdocs/23:45:33:8.htm and http://www.irss.unc.edu/tempdocs/23:45:33:7.htm

Gallup Poll. (1996). 1996, May. Roper Center at Univ. of Connecticut-Public Opinion Online. Found on Lexis-Nexis.

Gillespie, Mark. (1999). U.S. Public Changing Views On Immigration. Gallup News Service. 1999, March 16. Available: http://www.gallup.com/poll/releases/pr990316.asp

Lake, Celinda and Goeas, Ed. (1995). U.S. News and World Report survey conducted by Lake Research and the Tarrance Group. 1995, Sept. 25. Found on Lexis-Nexis.

National Opinion Research Center. (1994). General Social Survey. 1994, November. Roper Center at Univ. of Connecticut-Public Opinion Online. Found on Lexis-Nexis.

Newport, Frank. (1998). Americans Support Elimination of Bilingual Education. Gallup News Service. Available: http://www.gallup.com/poll/releases/pr980606.asp

Princeton Survey Research Associates. (1996). Sponsored by Newsweek. 1996, Aug. 17. Roper Center at Univ. of Connecticut-Public Opinion Online. Found on Lexis-Nexis.

Princeton Survey Research Associates. (1999). Sponsored by Newsweek. 1996, June 25-30. Available: http://www.pollingreport.com/race.htm

Public Policy Resources Laboratory--Texas A&M University. (1987). The Texas Poll. 1997, April. Found in Institute for Research in Social Science, Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Available: http://www.irss.unc.edu/tempdocs/23:45:33:9.htm

Rasmussen Research Poll. (1999). 1999, March 10. Roper Center at Univ. of Connecticut-Public Opinion Online. Found on Lexis-Nexis.

U.S. English, Inc. (1997). Alaskans Want English as State's Official Language. Conducted by the Tarrance Group. 1997, Aug. 1. Available: http://www.us-english.org/press/alaskapoll.htm

U.S. English, Inc. (1998). Poll Shows Utahns Overwhelmingly Support English as Official Language. Conducted by the Tarrance Group. 1998, Feb. 7. Available: http://www.us-english.org/press/utpoll.htm

U.S. English, Inc. (1998). Poll Shows Washingtonians Overwhelmingly Support English as State's Official Language. Conducted by the Tarrance Group. 1998, Feb. 23. Available: http://www.us-english.org/press/wapoll.htm

U.S. English, Inc. (1998). Poll Shows Maryland Voters Overwhelmingly Support English as State's Official Language. Conducted by Mason-Dixon Political/Media Research, Inc. 1998, April 8. Available: http://www.us-english.org/press/mdpoll.htm

Womenswire. (1996). Backtalk poll. Womenswire website. Available: http://www.womenswire.com/backtalk/englishonly.html (visited 1999, Sept. 14).

Yankelovich Partners Inc. (1995). Sponsored by Time/CNN. 1995, Sept. 29. Roper Center at Univ. of Connecticut-Public Opinion Online. Found on Lexis-Nexis.

SPECIALITY PUBLICATIONS/JOURNAL ARTICLES

Allbright, Amy. (1998). Arizona High Court Rules English-only Provision Unconstitutional. Trial 34:7, 106-107. 1998, July. Found on Proquest.

Business Week. (1998). Readers Report. 1998, July 13.

Cantu, Tony. (1998). Making English Official. Hispanic, 11(3), 52. Viewed on Proquest.

Dale, Charles V. and Gurevitz, Mark. (1995). Legal Analysis of Proposals to Make English the Official Language of the United States. Congressional Research Service. 1995, Oct. 17. Available: http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/tenn.htm (visited 1999, Sept. 14).

Glynn et al. (1999). Public Opinion Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.

Headden, Susan et al. (1995). One Nation, One Language? U.S. News & World Report 119:12, 38. 1995, Sept. 25. Found on Lexis-Nexis.

House Republican Committee. (1996). Welcoming Immigrants to a Diverse America: English as our Common Language of Mutual Understanding. 1996, June 5. Available: http://www.englishfirst.org/goppol.htm

Kennamer, J. David. (1994). Public Opinion, The Press, and Public Policy.(pp. 4 and 109). Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers.

King, Robert D. (1997). Should English be the Law? The Atlantic Monthly. 1997, April.

Koretz, Gene. (1998). Passing Laws to Promote English. Business Week. 1998, June 22.

Martinez, Elizabeth. (1998). The Ability to Speak Two Languages Is an Asset. La Voz de Colorado, 24:31, 5. 1998, Aug. 5.

Migration World Magazine. (1999). The English-only movement. 27:3, 14-15. Found on Proquest.

Miller, M. Mark. (1999). Class lecture. 1999, Nov. 9.

Republican National Committee Resolution. (1999). Puerto Rico Status Resolution. 1999, July 9. Available: http://www.englishfirst.org/puertogop7999text.htm

Santoro, Wayne, A. (1999). Conventional Politics Takes Center Stage: The Latino Struggle Against English-Only Laws. Social Forces, 77 (3), 887-909. Viewed on Proquest.

Schlafly, Phyllis. (1995). English Should Be Our Official Language. The Phyllis Schlafly Report, 29:5. 1995, December. Available: http://www.englishfirst.org/schafley.htm

U.S. House Republican Policy Committee. (1996). Welcoming Immigrants to a Diverse America: English as our Common Language of Mutual Understanding. Available: http://www.englishfirst.org/goppol.htm (visited 1999, Sept. 14).

WEB SOURCES

American Civil Liberties Union. (1996). English Only. Briefing Paper Number 6. ACLU official website. Available: http://www.aclu.org/library/pbp6.html (visited 1999, Sept. 14).

Amselle, Jorge, & Kirk, Joshua S. (1999). The Case for Official English. Center for Equal Opportunity. Available: http://www.ceousa.org/englis.html (visited 1999, Sept. 14).

Buchanan, Pat. (1995). Pat Buchanan: Look at Canada and See Why English Must Be America's Official Language. Available: http://www.englishfirst.org/bucheng.htm

Bush, George W. (1999). Official web site. http://www.georgewbush.com/espanol/index.html

Crawford, James. (1997). Opinion Polls on Official English. Crawford's website. Available: http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/can-pol.htm (visited 1999, Sept. 14).

Crawford, James. (1996). Legislating Language: Anglo-Paranoia in the U.S.A. Crawford's website. Available: http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/worldpap.htm (visited 1999, Sept. 14).

Crawford, James. (1999). Language Legislation in the U.S.A. Crawford's website. Available: http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/langleg.htm (visited 1999, Sept. 14).

Crawford, James. (1999). Issues In U.S. Language Policy--Canards. Crawford's website. Available: http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/canards.htm (visited 1999, Sept. 14).

English First. (1999). English First official website. Available: http://www.englishfirst.org/2000president.htm (visited 1999, Oct. 10).

English First. (1997). English First official website. Available: http://www.englishfirst.org/whoef.htm (visited 1999, Sept. 14).

Gore, Al. (1999). Official web site. http://www.algore2000.com/espanol/

National Education Association. (1996). The Debate Over English Only. NEA official website. Available: www.nea.org/society/engonly.html (visited on 1999, Sept. 14).

Torres, Joseph. (1996). Dole Support May Raise 'Official English' As Defining Issue in Presidential Race. Hispanic Link Weekly Report. 1996, May 5. Available: http://www.latinolink.com/opinion/hi05053e.html

U.S. English, Inc. (1999). U.S. English, Inc. official website. Available: http://www.us-english.org/incindex.html (visited 1999, Sept. 14).



(Last revised Dec. 4, 1999)
Introduction || Competing Ideas and Interests || Assessments of Public Opinion || Diversity and Dynamics of Opinion || Conclusions || Bibliography || Biographical Note


Copyright (c)Nathan Kirkham, Fall 1999.