Justice is the best mental health intervention
Social Welfare, Social Justice and Environmental Degradation Website: University of Tennessee College of Social Work (http://web.utk.edu/~merogge) and Boise State University Social Work Department (http://www.idbsu.edu:80/socwork/) 

Children, Poverty and Environmental Degradation Framework
(Work in Progress)
Global Poverty
Trap (Durning's 1989 Model)**
Environmental Problems 
(deforestation, natural resource depletionn, chemical contamination of air, water, land pollution, toxic waste) 
Consequences for Children
(physical, mental, emotional, economic)
to Improve
Bombay suffers from lack of structural and economic capabilities to support the migration into the city. 

New Bombay was developed to relieve urbanization problems in Bombay. Originally projected as a model of planned urban development, New Bombay has grown haphazardly into an outer suburb of the island city. The indigenous population has been displaced from their old settlements, and their cultivatable land acquired for development. 

With land prices still within reach of the middle class, New Bombay continues to grow.

Bombay, Calcutta and other cities are suffering from: Noise Pollution and Air Pollution, and sanitation problems. 

The causes of air pollution are mainly industries in the eastern suburbs and New Bombay, garbage burning by the BMC, and insufficient control over emission levels from vehicles. 

Only about 80% of the city’s area has sewage. 

It has been estimated that Bombay requires about 50,000 toilets, but only has 200 in operation. 

Located close to Thane-Belapur, the largest chemical industry zone in Asia, New Bombay is exposed to high levels of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals released by these industries. 

Some of these industries release noxious gases at night to prevent detection. 

New Bombay does not have the infrastructure to house the immigration.

Bombay has a very high incidence of chronic respiratory problems from air pollution. 

10% of pop. Around Chembur’s Municipal Garbage Dump suffer bronchitis and respiratory distress caused by pollution. 

Public facilities are sparse, there is even a single public hospital. 

Children daily exposed to chemicals and toxins are at higher risk for cancer, respiratory problems and learning disabilities.

Move against mass polluters -buses, taxis, private cars that emit the most visible, gross pollutants.  

Organize tree plantings  

Build awareness of the importance of wetlands.  

Work toward having hospital neighborhoods and schools as silence zones. 

Develop programs which educate about the use of latrines that involve community participation for better acceptance and usage. 

Improve structural problems of city in order that sewage and water systems are adequate for growing population. 

Regulate industries emissions of toxic emissions and waste management. 

Regulate garbage burning. 

Develop social and health systems to serve the communities of New Bombay. 

Restrict industrial and housing developments in order to protect farm lands.


11 Hindustan Park Calcutta 700029, India Phone: +91-33-4642921/2555 pradeep@clarionet.com  

The City and Industrial Development Corporation, CIDCO (was involved in implementing the structure of New Bombay) http://theory.tifr.res.in/bombay/amenities/orgs/cidco.html  

Nearly half of the world’s micronutrient deficient people may be found in India. Prevalent problems are lack of vitamin A, Iron deficiency anemia, and iodine deficiency disorders. 

Low food availability, discrimination against females…contribute to problem. 

Despite India’s stringent pollution control measures, outdated technologies, a lack of capital, and poor infrastructure contribute to the low levels of compliance with environmental legislation. 

Only 32% of rural India has access to safe drinking water, 85% of urban. Only 2% of rural India has adequate excreta disposal facilities, 45.7% of urban India.

Families and family members are having to compete for nutrition and land. 

As families are too poor to have access to adequate food and shelter, health conditions worsen and less attention and energy is given to environmental concerns for future generations creating an ever worsening cycle of tragic circumstances. 

40% of India’s population live in the Gangetic basin, the Ganges is the most polluted river in India as it runs beside dozens of cities spewing millions of gallons of untreated human and industrial waste every day. 

Virtually all of India’s surface water is polluted.

 An estimated 5-7% (6.6-9.2 million) preschool children suffer from xerophthalmia due to lack of vitamin A which causes at least 60,000 school children to go blind each year. 

Over 50% of preschool children and 65-70% of adolescent girls (future mothers) are believed to be anemic. 

Iodine deficiency impairs growth, development and intellectual capacity. 

Iodine deficiency disorders cause an estimated 90,000 stillbirths and neonatal deaths each year in India. 

Infants with low birth rate: 33% 

Children under 5 stunted: 65% 

Children underweight: 69% 

Children and mothers bath in waters as part of their religious practices. The locals believe that they will be cleansed spiritually by bathing in the waters. Children work, play and drink from the Ganges, their parents do not realize the dangers in doing so.

Improve the coverage of the National Vitamin A Prophylaxis Program so that more children benefit. 

Nutrition education, horticultural interventions, and vitamin A food fortification are other strategies being pursued to combat vitamin A deficiency. 

More rigorous monitoring of the iodine content of salt will ensure better health. 

Promote women in development, anti-poverty, eco and environment and community development projects. 

What is needed in an integrated approach that generates awareness of the problems to the fullest extent by involving the public and locally elected representatives, says Ganges Action Plan’s chief advisor.

National Vitamin A Prophylaxis Program 

Integrated Child Development Services 

The National Goiter Control Program 

The National Nutritional Anemia Prophylaxis Program 

Ph:1-800-521-CARE,ext.999 (USA) 
http://www.care.org/ info@care.org  

Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program http://www.nic.in/mohfw/cont12.0.html  

India Health Organization, 
Box #342, 
Malleshwaram Bangalore 560 003, 
Ph: (+91 80) 334 5610 or (+91 80) 331 0408 

Ganges Action Plan, GAP

Even though India has been involved in Nuclear projects since 1974, it has recently armed itself with nuclear warfare capabilities, claiming that it was needed to ensure national security. The country’s nuclear waste management strategy has only been planned for the next twenty years. How will the country afford to implement waste storage facilities afterwards? What can the country feasibly do now to ensure the health of its citizens against improper nuclear waste storage? Nuclear war between Pakistan and India is now a possibility for the children of the two countries. Encourage peace between nations.  

Educate the populations of India about the detriments of nuclear waste and exposure.

UNICEF http://www.unicef.org/  

Trees for Life 3006 W. St. Louis, Wichita, KS 67203 info@treesforlife.org Ph: (316)945-6929 http://www.treesforlife.org/index.html  

Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival,BASICS Ph. (202)712-0991 (USA) http://www.basics.org


OMNI Micronutrient Fact Sheets: India.(1996). WWW: http:///www.jsi.com/intl/omni/indi_pub.htm pps. 1-5.

PUBLIC, People United for Better Living in Calcutta. (1990). WWW: http:///allindia.com/public Pps.1-3.

Mumbai/Bombay. (June, 1997). Chronic Respiratory Problems. WWW: http://theory.tifr.res.in/bombay/amenities/sanitation/air-pollu.html

New Bombay. WWW: http://theory.tifr.res.in/bombay/physical/geo/new-bombay.html

Management of Sanitation. http://theory.tifr.res.in/bombay/amnenities/sanitation/waste-disposal.html

Rao, Samson, Pai, Madhuka, & Joseph, Abraham. (1997). Community Participation: Sanitation for rural communities: first win the people’s support. World Health Forum, Volume 18. Pps.262-265.

Vasudevan, M.V. (1996). India Rural Health Organization, IRHO. Registered as Bharath Health Mission Trust in India. http://www.cyberspace.org

World Health Organization, WHO.(1996). India. WWW: http://www.who.ch/hst/hsp/a/countrys/ind1.htm

International: Pollution of Rivers in India Reaches a Crisis. (October, 1997). The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/durable/1997/10/29/intl/intl.6.html

Sood, V.K. (May 15,1998). The Times of India. Structuring national security management. http://www.timesofindia.com/150598/15edit9.htm

International Waste Management. (December, 1996). http://p2.pni.gov:2080/fac/india/relate.html

Last updated: June 2000

Lead Researcher for Children, Poverty and Environmental Degradation Matrices: Julia Harris Vanover, University of Tennessee College of Social Work MSW student, Management and Community Practice Concentration


If you have comments or questions concerning this web site, please contact Mary E. Rogge. Thanks for stopping by!