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Eastern Hemlock

Latin name:
Tsuga canadensis

Extracted from a waterfront pier near Wilmington, Delaware, the tree used to make this portion of the pier
actually came from a forest located in central Pennsylvania. The outermost tree ring dates to the late 1830s.

Giant Sequoia

Latin name:
Sequoiadendron giganteum

A close up of numerous fire scars on a giant sequoia cross section from Sequoia National Park in California, dating back well prior to A.D. 1000. Look closely! Can you find the sad bearded face cradled by his hands, as if he was crying?

Douglas-fir

Latin name:
Pseudotsuga menziesii

This photo shows the tree rings from a beam extracted many years ago from a pueblo in northeastern Arizona. The section shows many false rings and many micro-rings, suggesting this tree may have been growing in a marginal environment.

Ponderosa Pine

Latin name:
Pinus ponderosa

Close up of tree rings of a ponderosa pine collected at El Malpais National Monument in New Mexico, USA, showing tree rings centered around A.D. 1400. Notice the variability in ring widths indicative of sensitivity to year-to-year variation in precipitation.

Douglas-fir

Latin name:
Pseudotsuga menziesii

Perhaps my most requested image of tree rings, obtained from a small Douglas-fir growing in the Zuni Mountains of west-central New Mexico by my colleagues Rex Adams and Chris Baisan. Not very old, but has some of the most beautiful rings of all my displays!

White Oak

Latin name:
Quercus alba

Oak cores from the Hoskins House in Greensboro, North Carolina, site of a famous battle during the Revolutionary War. The house was built from trees cut in 1811 to 1813, not cut and built in the 1780s as the historical agency had hoped.

Ponderosa Pine

Latin name:
Pinus ponderosa

This ponderosa pine once grew at El Morro National Monument in New Mexico, USA, and was cut many years ago. Once you get up close to the stump, you can see a very old scar from a fire many hundreds of years ago that scarred the tree when it only about 12 years old!

Bahamian Pine

Latin name:
Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis

We collected many cross sections of Bahamian pines that had been cut for an industrial park on the island of Abaco, but the rings are very difficult to date! Many false rings, and the pine appears to terminate tree growth during the dry season.

Longleaf Pine

Latin name:
Pinus palustris

This cross section was one of many that came from an old crib dam across a creek that was exposed after a modern dam broke in Hope Mills, North Carolina in 2003. Such sections from old-growth longleaf pines are very rare and provide information on climate back to AD 1500!

White Oak

Latin name:
Quercus alba

Sometimes you don't have to look far to find beauty in wood, and sometimes it may not be a living tree! After an oak tree was cut a year or two before this section was obtained, decay fungi had already set in, beginning to break the wood down to its basic elements.

Southwestern White Pine

Latin name:
Pinus strobiformis

I collected this fire-scarred pine on Mt. Graham in southern Arizona in fall 1991, and it remains one of the best examples of how we can determine the season of fire by looking at the position of the scar within the ring.

Bristlecone Pine

Latin name:
Pinus longaeva

Bristlecone pines have become one of the best proxy records for those who study the history of volcanic eruptions because the cool temperatures caused by these eruptions create "frost rings" that form when the cells implode from the cold.

Eastern Redcedar

Latin name:
Juniperus virginiana

Many well-preserved eastern redcedar sections have been recovered from prehistoric sites in eastern Tennessee, and they have more than enough rings to date, but we don't have a long enough living-tree reference chronology to overlap with them!

Red Oak

Latin name:
Quercus rubra

Oak is by far the most common genus we find in the many historic structures we date using tree rings in the Southeastern U.S. The genus has good ring variability and rarely has problem rings. This section came from a historic tavern in Lexington, Virginia.

Sugar Maple

Latin name:
Acer saccharum

Maple, birch, beech, and basswood are all examples of hardwood species that form diffuse porous wood, meaning that the ring contains many small-diameter vessels all through the ring. Identifying the ring boundary on this wood type is a challenge to tree-ring scientists.

Live Oak

Latin name:
Quercus virginiana

Live oak is an example of an evergreen oak, which is not common within this genus. As such, the wood is semi-ring porous and the rings are very difficult to see and date. Ring growth is also very erratic, not forming the concentric around the tree that we require.

Douglas-fir

Latin name:
Pseudotsuga menziesii

These cores were collected on Mt. Graham in southern Arizona and show a major suppression event beginning in 1685 when missing rings became evident, followed by many micro-rings. This suppression was caused by a major wildfire in 1685!

Ponderosa Pine

Latin name:
Pinus ponderosa

I find it amazing what trees can record in their tree rings! Here we see a cross section of a pine that was damaged by a major flood in the year 1945 in the Chiricahua Mountains of southern Arizona. Notice the reaction wood that formed afterward.

Pignut Hickory

Latin name:
Carya glabra

Sometimes gray-scale imagery helps define tree rings when measuring. Although classified as "ring porous" species, the rather ill-defined tree rings in hickory tree species form large earlywood vessels and smaller latewoood vessels.

Subalpine Fir

Latin name:
Abies lasiocarpa

Decay has set in on the tree rings of this dead and downed subalpine fir that once grew on Apex Mountain in British Columbia, Canada, but the tree rings can still be measured and crossdated despite this!

White Fir

Latin name:
Abies concolor

We found a beautiful fire scar on this white fir that was used to build a cabin in the Valles Caldera of New Mexico. Thought to have been built in the early 1900s, we instead found the cabin was built form white fir and Douglas-fir trees cut in 1941.

Overcup Oak

Latin name:
Quercus lyrata

These oak cores were collected in northeastern Arkansas to investigate a change in the hydrologic regime of a wildlife refuge beginning in the 1990s. We found that trees at this site experienced a major disturbance event in the 1960s.

Western Juniper

Latin name:
Juniperus occidentalis

Near Frederick Butte in central Oregon, we discovered an unusual stand of western junipers that had the most unusual lobate growth forms we had ever seen. This site yielded a drought-sensitive chronology dating back to the AD 800s!

West Indies Pine

Latin name:
Pinus occidentalis

Above 3000 meters on the highest peak in the Carribean, we found an entire forest of these pines, many with fire scars, living on a steep rocky slope. The forest looked more like the dry ponderosa pine forests of the western U.S.

Whitebark Pine

Latin name:
Pinus albicaulis

Whitebark pines growing in the northern Rockies of the western U.S. can grow to be over 1,000 years old, but the species is slowly being decimated by the introduced white pine blister rust. Many of these ancient trees are now dead with ghostly white trunks.

Shagbark Hickory

Latin name:
Carya ovata

Curiously, tree-ring scientists rarely analyze some of the more common hardwood species in the eastern U.S., such as this hickory, perhaps because such forest interior trees may contain a weak climate signal necessary for crossdating.

Virginia Pine

Latin name:
Pinus virginiana

Blue stain found in many sections of dead pines (both in the western and eastern U.S.) is caused by a fungus carried by a pine beetle. The fungus spreads into the phloem and sapwood of living and dead pines, sometimes creating stunning patterns!

Pinyon Pine

Latin name:
Pinus edulis

Burned sections of pinyon pine are commonly found in archaeological sites in the southwestern U.S. These sections can be carefully broken or surfaced with a razor to reveal the ring structure inside to assist in dating the years of construction of the site.

Red Spruce

Latin name:
Picea rubens

Conifers in the highest elevations of the Appalachians of the eastern U.S., such as this red spruce, don't experience wildfires very often, but when fires do occur, they can create numerous fire scars even in this fire-intolerant species. Notice the growth release!

White Spruce

Latin name:
Picea glauca

This tree was located in the Canadian Rockies on the toe slope of an active avalanche path. The scar was created by a debris flow or snow avalanche which struck the tree, killing a section of the living tissue. The avalanche can therefore be dated to its exact year!

Engelmann Spruce

Latin name:
Picea engelmannii

I worked considerably in the spruce-fir forests of southern Arizona in my earliest years in dendrochronology, and learned that trees with limited sensitivity can provide a vast amount of information on the history of these forests.

Ponderosa Pine

Latin name:
Pinus ponderosa

The lava flows of El Malpais National Monument in New Mexico contain vast amounts of remnant wood, mostly ponderosa pines such as this sample, and the tree rings on these samples go back nearly 2000 years! Notice the year AD 1400 on this section.

Chestnut Oak

Latin name:
Quercus montana

In the southeastern U.S., hardwood species are often scarred by wildfire. Most often, this also will cause considerable decay in the sample, but this oak had several well preserved fire scars, suggesting fire was common in these drier, lower elevation sites.

Ponderosa Pine

Latin name:
Pinus ponderosa

I originally sampled this stump in 1991 for its fire scars, located in El Malpais National Monument of New Mexico. I found it again 20 years later and was happy you could still see the tree rings and fire scars clearly! It had originally been logged in the 1930s!

Lodgepole Pine

Latin name:
Pinus contorta

This pine is found at higher elevations in the Rocky Mountains of the western U.S. At this site in Montana, we had thought we found fire scars on these pines, but it turns out that these are scars caused by bark beetles stripping away portions of the bark.

Douglas-fir

Latin name:
Pseudotsuga menziesii

These cores illustrate the level of sensitivity to climate fluctuations in Douglas-fir trees growing in El Malpais National Monument in New Mexico. These rings show the common pattern of narrow marker rings between 1800 (on the left) and 1860 (on the right).

Douglas-fir

Latin name:
Pseudotsuga menziesii

This photo shows a close-up of the rings in the previous image. The very wide tree ring is the year 1816, the "Year Without a Summer." Cooler temperatures meant more soil water for the malpais Douglas-firs, causing a wide ring for that year!

Ponderosa Pine

Latin name:
Pinus ponderosa

Dating fire scars found in the annual rings is a major application of tree-ring dating. This photo shows two scars. Notice the wider rings that formed after the upper scar, perhaps caused by removal of competing vegetation or added nutrients.

Longleaf Pine

Latin name:
Pinus palustris

Longleaf pines have the greatest ages of all the eastern pines. They grow slowly in sandy soils of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and have proven ideal for learning about past climate and disturbance events, if old-growth stands can be located!

Rocky Mountain Juniper

Latin name:
Juniperus scopulorum

The juniper species of the western U.S. have proven a challenge in tree-ring dating, but Rocky Mountain juniper has tree rings that are easily identified and can be crossdated. Just watch out for false rings and expanded latewood!

Douglas-fir

Latin name:
Pseudotsuga menziesii

A close-up photo of tree rings in Douglas-fir reveals the individual wood cells that make up the xylem. These are called "tracheids." Notice the change in cell wall thickness from the earlywood cells to the latewood cells along a radial file of cells.

Douglas-fir

Latin name:
Pseudotsuga menziesii

The best trees for learning about past climate will be those that grow to great ages and are particularly sensitive to year to year changes in climate. This Douglas-fir began growing around the year 200 BC and lived for nearly 1000 years!

Mesquite

Latin name:
Prosopis glandulosa

Some desert species from the mid-latitudes do form annual rings, but these diffuse-porous species have rings that are difficult to see. You can use black marker and white chalk dust to help bring out the rings! The dust fills the small vessels and the rings appear!

Norway Spruce

Latin name:
Picea abies

Spruce is the preferred genus for making high-quality wooden bodies on musical instruments. This photo shows the tree rings on the outer edge of the "Messiah" violin. Analysis of its tree rings helped show that the violin was contemporary with Stradivari!

Black Locust

Latin name:
Robinia pseudoacacia

In the eastern U.S., this common hardwood species has beautiful tree rings that demonstrate the ring porous wood type. The tree species, however, has some of the densest wood found in North America and is extremely difficult to core!

White Oak

Latin name:
Quercus alba

Oak is a major genus used to build log structures in the eastern U.S. Sometimes, however, we find that the individual trees experienced some major disturbances that caused very aberrant rings, making crossdating all but impossible.

Palo Verde

Latin name:
Parkinsonia florida

A common tree species in the American Southwest, palo verde is a diffuse porous species that forms very indistinct tree rings. As a result, little tree-ring research has been performed on this genus. Best to use complete cross sections, when available.

Ponderosa Pine

Latin name:
Pinus ponderosa

A major application of tree-ring research is learning about insect populations. For example, pandora moth defoliated the needles on this tree, causing some narrow rings to be produced. We can use this pattern to learn about insect populations over many centuries!

Table Mountain Pine

Latin name:
Pinus pungens

The analysis of fire scars in tree rings can also be applied to pine species growing in the eastern U.S. Table Mountain pine has proven to be the best species in the Appalachian Mountains for learning about past wildfires!

Subalpine Fir

Latin name:
Abies lasiocarpa

Subalpine fir grows in the highest elevations of the southern Rocky Mountains and forms fairly compacent ring series. Sometime between 1979 and 1980, this tree was stripped almost completely of its bark by a black bear, but it still survived in one small area!

Florida Torreya

Latin name:
Torreya taxifolia

Perhaps the rarest conifer in the U.S., this species is on the brink of extinction because its habitat is facing mounting pressure from rapid changes in its native environment. It forms very nice tree rings, but few adult individuals are left to analyze.

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Spectacular Trees

Tree Ring Gallery 1
Tree Ring Gallery 2
Spectacular Trees
Beautiful Landscapes
Taking Samples
Historic Structures
Bristlecone Pines
   

An old-growth eastern white pine from Newfoundland, Canada, showing typical properties of an old tree.  Normally, eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) grows straight and tall in the eastern U.S. and Canada, but some unusual white pine trees were found in Newfoundland, Canada that look to be extremely old (photo © A. Arsenault)!
A massive ponderosa pine with a massive catface in the Magdalena Mountains of New Mexico. A massive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) with a massive catface in the Magdalena Mountains of New Mexico, July 2013. Couldn't sample this one because of the dangerous boulder leaning against the tree  (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer).
A massive Douglas-fr growing in the Magdalena Mountains of New Mexico, enshrouded in clouds. We found this massive Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) along the road leading up to South Baldy in the Magdalena Mountains, and it was surreal each day as it was enshrouded in clouds the whole time (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer).
A ponderosa pine tree that was likely struck by lightning at some point in its past. Sometimes you have to be amazed at the resilience of trees! This ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing in Bryce Canyon in Utah was likely struck by lightning at some point in the past, killing the original top leader, causing a lower branch to take over (photo © M. Rochner).
A spectacular ponderosa pine tree with bark peeled by Native Americans A spectacular ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) with bark peeled by Native Americans sometime in the 1840s, located in Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer).

An immense sugar maple that we found in northeastern Tennessee near Bristol

An immense sugar maple (Acer saccharum) that we found in northeastern Tennessee near Bristol (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer). Unfortunately, the trunk was decayed so we couldn't get an age for it.

Fire-scarred red pines in Minnesota An impressive group of red pines (Pinus resinosa) all scarred by repeated fires in Itasca State Park, Minnesota  (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer). These were sampled at the 2004 North American Dendroecological Fieldweek.

A corkbark fir tree growing in the high elevation forests of southern Arizona near Mt. Graham

A corkbark fir tree (Abies lasiocarpa), growing in the high elevation forests of southern Arizona near Mt. Graham (photo © J. Psaltis). Notice how the bark has been stripped off by bears - by taking cores, we can date when this bark was stripped off.

A ponderosa pine tree growing in the "Pygmy Forest" in El Malpais National Monument

One of the most unusual growth forms I've ever seen, this on a ponderosa pine tree (Pinus ponderosa) growing in the "Pygmy Forest" in El Malpais National Monument (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer).

This longleaf pine tree is literally growing with its roots in a saltwater zone

This longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) tree is literally growing with its roots in a saltwater zone at the White Point site near Eglin Air Force Base, Florida (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer).

An immense Douglas-fir tree that once had lived at the Peter's Flat site on Mt. Graham

The "Mother of the Forest," an immense Douglas-fir tree (Pseudotsuga menziesii) that once had lived at the Peter's Flat site on Mt. Graham in southeastern Arizona for over 700 years (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer).

An immense Douglas-fir tree that was over 700 years when it was killed by the Clark Peak fire on Mt. Graham in 1996

The "Mother of the Forest," an immense Douglas-fir tree (Pseudotsuga menziesii) that was over 700 years when it was killed by the Clark Peak fire on Mt. Graham in 1996 (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer).

A giant sequoia showing the characteristic catface caused by numerous fires

A giant sequoia tree (Sequoiadendro giganteum) showing the characteristic catface caused by numerous and fairly frequent wildfires that occurred on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada of California (photo © L.B. LaForest).

Extremely long-lived western junipers in central Oregon near Frederick Butte

This picture shows the growth forms that we identify in the field that characterize extremely long-lived western junipers (Juniperus occidentalis) in central Oregon, near Frederick Butte (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer). These dead standing trees have rings that go back nearly 1000 years!

The bark on this ponderosa pine in Montana was peeled off by Native Americans

Notice the large scar on this tree (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer). This is not a fire scar. Instead, the bark on this ponderosa pine tree (Pinus ponderosa) in Montana was peeled off by Native Americans to retrieve the soft, inner bark for food or medicinal purposes.

A bristlecone pine at treeline in the White Mountains of eastern California

A bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) at treeline in the White Mountains of eastern California, the oldest known trees in the world (photo © L. Miller).

Ponderosa pine tree growing near Rose Canyon in the Santa Catalina Mountains north of Tucson, Arizona

One of the largest fire-scarred catfaces I had ever seen, found on a living ponderosa pine tree (Pinus ponderosa) growing near Rose Canyon in the Santa Catalina Mountains north of Tucson, Arizona (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer).

A dead standing sweet chestnut tree in the Tiétar River Valley of Spain

Some trees in the Mediterranean region of Europe once grew to immense proportions such as seen in this carcass of a sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the Tiétar River Valley of Spain (photo © D. Paton).

A 1,000+ year old Formosan hinoki found in Taiwan

A 1,000+ year old Formosan hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana) found in Taiwan. On the left is Dr. Biing Guan, professor in the School of Forestry and Resource Conservation at National Taiwan University, with Mr. Lin, head forester for that district on the right (photo © W.E. Wright).

Methuselah Grove in the White Mountains of southeastern California

In 1991, I had the pleasure of visiting the mecca of tree-ring science, Methuselah Grove in the White Mountains of southeastern California, where I communed with the ancient bristlecone pines (Pinus longaeva) (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer).

A spectacular ponderosa pine at the McCall Field Campus next to Payette Lake in McCall, Idaho

A spectacular ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) at the McCall Field Campus next to Payette Lake in McCall, Idaho, where we had the 2005 North American Dendroecological Fieldweek (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer). This tree has all the hallmarks of old age.

Old-growth longleaf pines at the Patterson Natural Area on Eglin Air Force Base near Pensacola, Florida

I could not believe the number of old-growth longleaf pines (Pinus palustris) we found at the Patterson Natural Area on Eglin Air Force Base near Pensacola, Florida (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer). These trees were immense, some approaching 500 years in age.

Longleaf pine on Sandy Island in South Carolina, bearing the turpentining catface

A forgotten part of American history. For nearly 300 years, the naval stores industry fueled the economies of the coastal southern states. This longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) was found on Sandy Island in South Carolina, bearing the turpentining catface (photo © J.P. Henderson).

Ponderosa pine growing at the Indian Peak site in the San Mateo Mountains of central New Mexico

Some of the oldest trees grow in the most inhospitable places (at least for us humans). This ponderosa pine tree (Pinus ponderosa) is growing at the Indian Peak site in the San Mateo Mountains of central New Mexico (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer).

Foxtail pine near Kaweah Gap in the Sierra Nevada of California

Paul Sheppard cores a foxtail pine (Pinus balfouriana) near Kaweah Gap in the Sierra Nevada of California near the High Sierra Trail (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer).

Stripbark foxtail pine near Kaweah Gap in the Sierra Nevada of California

Lisa Graumlich cores a stripbark foxtail pine (Pinus balfouriana) near Kaweah Gap in the Sierra Nevada of California near the High Sierra Trail (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer).

"Yoda," a 600-year old living Douglas-fir growing in El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico

My good friend and long-time field assistant Rex Adams stands next to "Yoda," a 600-year old living Douglas-fir tree (Pseudotsuga menziesii) growing in El Malpais National Monument of New Mexico (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer).

The largest aspen I have ever seen in my life. I found this one growing in the Chiricahua Mountains of Arizona

Without a doubt, this is the largest aspen (Populus tremuloides) I have ever seen in my life. I found this one growing near Long Park in the Chiricahua Mountains, just south of Rustler Park (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer).

The former state champion white oak of Tennessee before it came crashing down one day in 2002

The former state champion white oak (Quercus alba) of Tennessee, which came crashing down due to natural causes on August 2, 2002 just outside Bristol, Tennessee (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer). A branch from this tree far up in the crown has an inner date of A.D. 1763.

A limber pine found growing in northern New Mexico

I've worked a lot with limber pines (Pinus flexlis) in the American Southwest, but seldom does one see a limber pine like this one found growing in northern New Mexico (photo © S. Atencio). Truly an impressive tree. On the uphill side facing away is a fantastic catface containing evidence of multiple fires at this location.

Incredibly majestic western juniper tree is growing in Yosemite National Park

This incredibly majestic western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) tree is growing in Yosemite National Park (photo © Peter Kelly) on one of the many domes found throughout the park. Such trees are common in the park and are commonly over 1000 years in age.

Sunlight as a backdrop to a slash pine at the No Name Key site in the Florida Keys

Sunlight as a backdrop to a south Florida slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. densa) at the No Name Key site in the Florida Keys (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer). This species is the densest pine I have ever cored in my life!

One of the best catfaces we've ever found in Great Smoky Mountains National Park in eastern Tennessee

One of the best catfaces we've ever found in Great Smoky Mountains National Park in eastern Tennessee, on a shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) snag at the Gold Mine trail site (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer). This one tree had about 14 fire scars on it.

Table Mountain pine is a fire-adapted, endemic species to the Appalachian Mountain corridor

Table Mountain pine (Pinus pungens) is a fire-adapted, endemic species to the Appalachian Mountain corridor (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer), but fire exclusion is causing this species to become fewer in number.

Incredible snag with a massive catface on the uphill side, North Mountain, in the Jefferson National Forest of Virginia.

Fire was once prominent in xeric habitats where Table Mountain pine (Pinus pungens) is commonly found (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer), as shown on this incredible snag with a massive catface on the uphill side. North Mountain, in the Jefferson National Forest of Virginia.

A picturesque and quite old dead ponderosa pine found on the slopes of French Creek drainage in the Payette National Forest of Idaho

A picturesque and quite old dead ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) found on the slopes of French Creek drainage in the Payette National Forest of Idaho (photo © L.B. LaForest).

immense and very old (> 500 years old) ponderosa pine, El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico

Even though stunted trees are common on the lava fields of El Malpais National Monument in New Mexico, every now and then you can find an immense and very old (> 500 years old) ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer).

one of the largest Rocky Mountain junipers growing on the Paxton Springs lava flow

In the Zuni Mountains of New Mexico, we found one of the largest Rocky Mountain junipers (Juniperus scopulorum) I had ever seen growing on the Paxton Springs lava flow (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer).

Twisted ponderosa pines line the sky above as we core trees at El Morro National Monument in New Mexico

Twisted ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa) line the sky above as we core trees at El Morro National Monument in New Mexico (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer).

uUnbelievable twisted Douglas-fir growing on the lava flow at El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico

I thought El Malpais in New Mexico had offered everything for me to see until I found this unbelievable twisted Douglas-fir growing on the lava flow (photo © G.L. Harley). Likely over 600 years old.

Old Rocky Mountain juniper near Middle Kipuka, El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico

And then we were hiking across the lava at El Malpais and stumbled upon this old Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) (photo © G.L. Harley). Likely over 1500 years old.

Fire-scarred catface at the bottom of a ponderosa pine on Mesita Blanca in El Malpais National Monument

A classic fire-scarred catface at the bottom of a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) tree on Mesita Blanca in El Malpais National Monument, containing a record of about 8 fire events (photo © H.D. Grissino-Mayer).

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