Limits to Life-Sustaining Treatment

3. Withdraw "ordinary" measures

What if treatment has already been started? Is it ever justified to withdraw measures already underway?

As you can see, things get more controversial as we move down this list of methods of limiting treatment.

Many would say that nutrition and hydration are fundamental elements of "care" and never should be foregone.

Others point out that at least some ways of delivering nutrition and hydration (e.g., hyperalimentation) are complicated medical procedures - and they may have significant harmful side-effects.


  • mechanical respirator
  • medicines to maintain blood pressure
  • nutrition, hydration

Created by Glenn C. Graber
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